Earth Sciences

Volume 9, Issue 4, August 2020

  • Energy Imbalance Between the Earth and Space Controls the Climate

    Habibullo Abdussamatov

    Issue: Volume 9, Issue 4, August 2020
    Pages: 117-125
    Received: 26 April 2020
    Accepted: 20 June 2020
    Published: 30 July 2020
    Abstract: The climate system depends at an extremely complex set of long-term (about 30 years or more) physical processes in the ocean-land-atmosphere systems, which, in turn, are influenced mainly quasi-bicentennial variations of the total solar irradiance (TSI). The TSI decline phase started around 1990. The onset of the Grand minimum phase of the TSI quas... Show More
  • Correcting an Error in Some Interpretations of Atmospheric 14C Data

    David Evans Andrews

    Issue: Volume 9, Issue 4, August 2020
    Pages: 126-129
    Received: 5 July 2020
    Accepted: 4 August 2020
    Published: 13 August 2020
    Abstract: The variable “∆14C”, commonly used in radiocarbon dating and tracing applications to quantify 14C levels, is a measure of the ratio of the radioisotope 14C to other carbon in a sample. After atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1950’s and 1960’s nearly doubled atmospheric 14C, the later evolution of ∆14C allowed insights into the dynamics of carbon e... Show More
  • Surface and Crustal Study Based on Digital Elevation Modeling and 2-D Gravity Forward Modeling in Thandiani to Boi Areas of Hazara Region, Pakistan

    Umair Khan, Fawad Khan, Tahirinandraina Prudence Rabemaharitra, Malik Arsalan, Osama Abdulrahim, Inayat Ur Rahman

    Issue: Volume 9, Issue 4, August 2020
    Pages: 130-142
    Received: 25 July 2020
    Accepted: 10 August 2020
    Published: 19 August 2020
    Abstract: Gravity data indicates that there is a regular relation between crustal structure, crustal density (composition), and surface ascension. In order to delineate surface and subsurface geological structure features, and to calculate the thickness variation of the crust and sedimentary/metasedimentary wedges, integrated approach of Geographic Informati... Show More