International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis

Volume 3, Issue 2, April 2015

  • Analyzing TENORM in Hydraulic Fracturing Wastes

    Leong Ying

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 2-1, April 2015
    Pages: 1-6
    Received: Oct. 16, 2014
    Accepted: Oct. 22, 2014
    Published: Oct. 29, 2014
    Downloads:
    Views:
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Methods and Technologies for Hydraulic Fracturing
    Abstract: Hydraulic fracturing, commonly referred to as fracking, is a method used to extract oil and natural gas from shale and coalbed deposits by high-pressure injection of a cocktail mix of chemicals, sand and water. However, absorbed in the returning produced wastewaters along with the desired hydrocarbons are Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N... Show More
  • Spectrum Quantification of Radium Isotopes in Hydraulic Fracturing Wastes

    Leong Ying, Robert Brenna, Richard Yuen, Cory Hoskins

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 2-1, April 2015
    Pages: 7-10
    Received: Jun. 29, 2015
    Accepted: Jun. 30, 2015
    Published: Aug. 27, 2015
    Downloads:
    Views:
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Methods and Technologies for Hydraulic Fracturing
    Abstract: Exploration of oil and natural gas from shale deposits can bring to the surface radioactivity. Naturally occurring Uranium-238 and Thorium-232 as part of their decay chains can produce radium isotopes, which are themselves precursors of radon gas. Due to the solubility of radium and its contaminated impact on the environments and health concerns, r... Show More
  • Downblending Contaminated Radioactive Wastes

    Leong Ying, Robert Brenna, Richard Yuen, Cory Hoskins

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 2-1, April 2015
    Pages: 11-14
    Received: Aug. 12, 2015
    Accepted: Aug. 14, 2015
    Published: Aug. 27, 2015
    Downloads:
    Views:
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Methods and Technologies for Hydraulic Fracturing
    Abstract: Dilution is the mixing of radioactive waste with non-radioactive material, whereas downblending is the mixing of high-level radioactive waste with low-level radioactive waste. These processes have been applied predominantly at nuclear sites as part of the decontamination procedures for the disposal of blended wastes in licensed facilities. Proper h... Show More