Journal of Photonic Materials and Technology

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Influence of Post Annealing Rates on Porosity, Dispersion Energy and Associated Dielectric Energy Losses of TiO2 Thin Films

With scientific and technological advances, Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has attracted great research interest in the field of Dye Sensitized Solar cells (DSSC) with an aim to improve its efficiency. In this study, transparent semiconducting titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on glass substrate coated with fluorine tin IV oxide (SnO2: F) film by sol gel technique. The films were then annealed in air up to 450°C at different annealing rates. Optical reflectance was measured using UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and optical parameters such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constants were modelled using SCOUT software. Average refractive indices in the visible region ranged between 1.95 and 1.56. Porosity for as deposited, 1 step, 2°C/min and1°C/min were found to be 48%, 73%, 61% and 53% respectively. Refractive index dispersion was investigated using Wemple – Di-Domenico single oscillator model. Dispersion energy of annealed films increased from 5.90 eV to 11.30 eV. Surface and volume energy loss were computed from dielectric constants and correlated with porosity and dispersion energy as function of the heat treatment. Optical parameters were found to highly depend on the annealing the thin films. Annealing rate influenced a decrease in porosity and an increase in dispersion energy due to film densification and pore filling as the crystallinity is improved by heat treatment.

TiO2, Surface Energy Loss, Thin Film, Volume Energy Loss, Porosity, Dispersion Energy

APA Style

Nelson Mugambi, James Mbiyu Ngaruiya, Simon Waweru Mugo, Geoffrey Gitonga Riungu, Gitonga Mbae John. (2021). Influence of Post Annealing Rates on Porosity, Dispersion Energy and Associated Dielectric Energy Losses of TiO2 Thin Films. Journal of Photonic Materials and Technology, 7(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jmpt.20210701.11

ACS Style

Nelson Mugambi; James Mbiyu Ngaruiya; Simon Waweru Mugo; Geoffrey Gitonga Riungu; Gitonga Mbae John. Influence of Post Annealing Rates on Porosity, Dispersion Energy and Associated Dielectric Energy Losses of TiO2 Thin Films. J. Photonic Mater. Technol. 2021, 7(1), 1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.jmpt.20210701.11

AMA Style

Nelson Mugambi, James Mbiyu Ngaruiya, Simon Waweru Mugo, Geoffrey Gitonga Riungu, Gitonga Mbae John. Influence of Post Annealing Rates on Porosity, Dispersion Energy and Associated Dielectric Energy Losses of TiO2 Thin Films. J Photonic Mater Technol. 2021;7(1):1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.jmpt.20210701.11

Copyright © 2021 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Elano S., Guillermo R. and Javier G. (2009). “Nanotechnology for Sustainable Energy,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Revolution paper. 2337-2384.
2. Du, J., Lai, X. Y., Halpert, E. J., Yang, Y. and Wang, D. (2011) "Formation of efficient dye sensitized solar cells by introducing an interfacial layer of hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous TiO2 film", Science China Chemistry, 54: 930.
3. Khalid, N. S., Fazli, F. I., Abd H. N., Napi, M. L., Soon, C. and Ahmad, M. K. (2016). “Biocompatibility of TiO2 nanorods and nanoparticles on HeLa cells” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 45: 1675-1678.
4. Sung Y. M. and Kim H. J. (2007). “Sputter deposition and surface treatment of TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells using reactive RF plasma,” Thin Solid Films, 515: 4996-4999.
5. Wang W. H., and Chao, S. (1998). “Annealing effect on ion-beam-sputtered titanium dioxide film,” Optics letters, 23 (18), 1417-1419.
6. Barbe C. J., Arendse F., Comte P., Jirousek M., Lenzmann F., Shklover V. and Gratzel M. (1997). “Nanocrystalline Titanium Oxide Electrodes for Photovoltaic Applications,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 80 (12) 3157-3171.
7. Park N. G., Van de Lagemaat J., and Frank A. J. (2000). “Comparison of Dye-Sensitized Rutile- and Anatase-Based TiO2 Solar Cells,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 104: 8989.
8. Wang Y-H., Rahman K. H., Wu C-C., Chen K-C. (2020). “A Review on the Pathways of the Improved Structural Characteristics and Photocatalytic Performance of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Thin Films Fabricated by the Magnetron-Sputtering Technique”. Catalysts, 10 (6): 598.
9. Hasan, M. M., Haseeb, A. S. M. A., Saidur, R., Masjuki, H. H. and Hamdi. M. (2009) "Synthesis and Annealing of Nanostructured TiO2 Films by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering", Journal of Applied Sciences, 9: 2815-2821.
10. Sta I, Jlassi M, Hajji M, Boujmil M. F, and Jerbi R. (2014), “Structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared by spin coating’, Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 72: 421-427.
11. Theiss, W. (2000). Scout thin films analysis software handbook, edited by Theiss M (Hand and Software Aachen German) www.mtheiss.com.
12. Yang Y., Ri K. and Mei A. (2015). “The size effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on a printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cell,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, 3: 9103–9107.
13. Kim H. S. and Park N. G., (2014). “Parameters affecting I–V hysteresis of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: effects of perovskite crystal size and mesoporous TiO2 layer,” Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 5: 2927–2934.
14. Liu H., Huang Z., Wei S., Zheng L., Xiao L., and Gong Q. (2016). “Nano-structured electron transporting materials for perovskite solar cells,” Nanoscale, 8 (12) 6209–6221.
15. Lu H., Deng K., Yan N. (2016). “Efficient perovskite solar cells based on novel three-dimensional TiO2 network architectures,” Science Bulletin, 61 (10) 778–786.
16. Kim Y. J., Lee Y. H. and Lee M. H. (2008). “Formation of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells by introducing an interfacial layer of long-range ordered mesoporous TiO2 thin film,” Langmuir, 24 (22): 13225–13230.
17. Chiad, Sami O., Saad B., Nabeel H., Nadir. (2014). “Electronic Transitions and Dispersion Parameters of Annealed TiO2 Films Prepared by Vacuum Evaporation Technique,” Materials Focus, 3: (10) 1134.
18. Ayieko C. O., Musembi R. J., Waita S. M., Aduda B. O. and Jain P. K. (2003) “Structural and Optical Characterization of Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis on Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO) Coated Glass Slides,” International Journal of Energy Engineering, 2 (3): 67-72.
19. Xinmi H., Xiao X., Zhang, Z., Yang, J., and Zhang J. (2017). “Influence of surface topography, crystallinity, and thermal conductivity on reflectance and color of metallic-effect high-density polyethylene parts filled with aluminum pigments,” Polymer Engineering & Science. 58. 10.1002/pen.24593.
20. Hassanien A. S. and Akl A. A. (2018). “Optical characteristics of iron oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures,” Applied Physics A. 124. 10.1007/s00339-018-2180-6.
21. Liu X., Jin Z. and Bu S. (2005). “Influences of Solvent on Properties of TiO2 Porous Films Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method from the System Containing PEG,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 36 (1), 103–111.
22. Ohyama M., Kozuka H. and Yoko T. (1997) “Sol-gel preparation of ZnO films with extremely preferred orientation along (002) plane from zinc acetate solution,” Thin Solid Films, 306: 78-85.
23. Kingery W. D., Bowen H. K. and Uhlmann D. R. (1976) Introduction to Ceramics, Wiley, New York.
24. Hasan, M. M., Haseeb, A. S. M. A., Saidur, R., Masjuki, H. H., & Hamdi, M. (2010). Influence of substrate and annealing temperatures on optical properties of RF-sputtered TiO2 thin films. Optical Materials, 32 (6): 690-695.
25. Wemple S. H. and Di Domenico M. (1969) “Oxygen-Octahedra Ferroelectrics. II. Electro-optical and Nonlinear-Optical Device Applications,” Journal of Applied Physics, 40: 735.
26. Wemple S. H. and DiDomenico M. (1971) “Behavior of the Electronic Dielectric Constant in Covalent and Ionic Materials,” Physical Review B, 3: 1338–51.
27. Yang C., Fan H., Xi Y., Chen J. and Li Z. (2008) “Effects of depositing temperatures on structure and optical properties of TiO2 film deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation” Applied Surface Science, 254: 2685-2689.
28. Yakuphanoglu F., Cukurovali A. and Yilmaz I., Phys. B, (2004), Single-Oscillator Model and Determination of Optical Constants of Some Optical Thin Film Materials, Physica B Condensed Matter, 353: 210–216.
29. Sarkar S., Das N. S. and Chattopadhyay K. K. (2014), Electro-active phase formation in PVDF–BiVO4 flexible nanocomposite films for high energy density storage application, RSC Advances, 33: 58–66.
30. El-Nhass, M. M., Soliman, H. S. and El-Denglawey, A. (2016), “Absorption edge shift, Optical conductivity and energy loss function of nano thermal-evaporated N-type anatase TiO2 films,” Aplied physics A 122: 775.
31. Ali, A. I., Son, J. Y., Ammar, A. H., Abdel Moez, A. and Kim Y. S. (2013) "Optical and dielectric results of Y0.225Sr0.775CoO3±δ thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry technique", Results in Physics, 3: 167-172.
32. Al-Jufairi, N. (2006), “Structure and Surface Properties of Anatase TiO2 Thin Film by Sol-Gel Technique,” Materials Science Forum, 517: 165–172.
33. Al-jufairi J. N. (2012). "Electric properties and surface structure of TiO2 for solar cells", Energy, 39: 6.
34. Yakuphanoglu K. F., Cukurovali A. and Yilmaz I. (2004), “Single-Oscillator Model and Determination of Optical Constants of Some Optical Thin Film Materials,” Physica B Condensed Matter, 353: 210–216.
35. Fournier L. C., Bamiduro O., Mustafa H., Mundle R., Konda R. B., Williams F. and Pradhan A. K. (2008), “Effects of substrate temperature on the optical and electrical properties of Al: ZnO films” Semiconductor Science and Technology, 23: 085019.
36. Zhiwen Q., Haibo G., Xiaopeng Y., Zichao Z., Jun H., Bingqiang C., Daisuke N. and Tatsuo O. (2015). “Phosphorus Concentration Dependent Microstructure and Optical Property of ZnO Nanowires Grown by High-Pressure Pulsed Laser Deposition,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, C. 119 (8), 4371-4378.