Bioprocess Engineering

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Evaluation of Thin Layer Models for Simulating Drying Kinetics of Black Nightshade Seeds in a Solar-Exhaust Gas Greenhouse Dryer

The current study aimed to use, besides solar, waste heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine operated for milling of grain, to dry black nightshade seeds. Assessment of thin layer models for simulating drying kinetics of black nightshade seeds was performed in a solar-exhaust gas greenhouse dryer operated on solar; solar-exhaust gas; and exhaust gas modes. In solar mode, seeds took 11 hours to reach a final moisture content of 7.13% (db) from an initial one of 89.34% (db). In solar-exhaust gas mode seeds were dried from an initial moisture content of 92.57% (db) to a final one of 6.07% (db) in 10 hours. In exhaust gas mode it took 14 hours to dry black nightshade seeds from an initial moisture content of 88.84% (db) to a final one of 9.42% (db). Newton, Page, Logarithmic, and Henderson and Pabis thin layer drying models were fitted to experimental data and the best model was selected based on low root mean squared error (RMSE) and interpretation of residual plots. To best explain the prediction of thin layer drying of black nightshade seeds, based on the lowest value of RMSE, Page model was found suitable for solar mode with RMSE of 0.01147206, Logarithmic model was found suitable for both solar-exhaust gas and exhaust gas modes of drying with RMSE of 0.0172098 and 0.02315325 respectively. In conclusion, the thin layer modeling approach can be used to provide design data for a solar-exhaust gas greenhouse dryer.

Solar-Exhaust Gas Greenhouse Dryer, Thin Layer Drying, Page Model, Logarithmic Model, Black Nightshade Seeds

APA Style

George Onyango Orido, Erick Kiplangat Ronoh, Patrick Ochuodho Ajwang, Benson Baari Gathitu. (2023). Evaluation of Thin Layer Models for Simulating Drying Kinetics of Black Nightshade Seeds in a Solar-Exhaust Gas Greenhouse Dryer. Bioprocess Engineering, 7(1), 10-31. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.be.20230701.12

ACS Style

George Onyango Orido; Erick Kiplangat Ronoh; Patrick Ochuodho Ajwang; Benson Baari Gathitu. Evaluation of Thin Layer Models for Simulating Drying Kinetics of Black Nightshade Seeds in a Solar-Exhaust Gas Greenhouse Dryer. Bioprocess Eng. 2023, 7(1), 10-31. doi: 10.11648/j.be.20230701.12

AMA Style

George Onyango Orido, Erick Kiplangat Ronoh, Patrick Ochuodho Ajwang, Benson Baari Gathitu. Evaluation of Thin Layer Models for Simulating Drying Kinetics of Black Nightshade Seeds in a Solar-Exhaust Gas Greenhouse Dryer. Bioprocess Eng. 2023;7(1):10-31. doi: 10.11648/j.be.20230701.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Edmonds, J. M., & Chweya, J. A. (1997). Black nightshades: Solanum nigrum L. and related species (Vol. 15). Bioversity International.
2. Hong, T. D., Linington, S., & Ellis, R. H. (1996). Seed storage behavior: a compendium.
3. Schippers, R. (1998). Notes on huckleberry, Solanum scabrum and related black nightshade species. Natural Resource Institute, University of Greenwich. http://www.dfid. gov.uk/r4d/pdf/outputs/R6964a.pdf. Accessed on, 20/11/2021.
4. Kiburi, F. G., Kanali, C. L., Kituu, G. M., Ajwang, P. O., & Ronoh, E. K. (2020a). Performance evaluation and economic feasibility of a solar-biomass hybrid greenhouse dryer for drying banana slices. Renewable Energy Focus, 34, 60-68.
5. Ronoh, E. K., Ndirangu, S. N., Kiburi, F. G., Kipsang, M. J., & Rutto, E. J. (2020). Evaluation of thin layer drying models for simulating drying kinetics of jackfruit slices in a solar greenhouse dryer. African Journal of Horticultural Science, 17, 31-42.
6. Chowdhury, M. M. I., Bala, B. K., & Haque, M. A. (2011). Mathematical modelling of thin layer drying of jackfruit leather. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 35 (6), 797-805.
7. Hii, C. L., Law, C. L., & Cloke, M. (2009). Modeling using a new thin layer drying model and product quality of cocoa. Journal of food engineering, 90 (2), 191-198.
8. Onwude, D. I., Hashim, N., Janius, R. B., Nawi, N. M., & Abdan, K. (2016). Modeling the thin layer drying of fruits and vegetables: A review. Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety, 15 (3), 599-618.
9. Chowdhury, N., Ghosh, A., & Chandra, G. (2008). Mosquito larvicidal activities of solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector stegomyia aegypti. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 8 (1), 1-8.
10. Ekhuya, N. A., Wesonga, J. M., & Abukutsa–Onyango, M. O. (2018). Production, processing, and storage techniques of African nightshade (solanum spp.) seeds and their correlations with farmers’ characteristics in western Kenya. African journal of food, agriculture, nutrition, and development, 18 (2), 13338-13351.
11. Feldsine, P., Abeyta, C., & Andrews, W. H. (2002). AOAC International methods committee guidelines for validation of qualitative and quantitative food microbiological official methods of analysis. Journal of AOAC international, 85 (5), 1187-1200.
12. Uluko, H., Kanali, C. L., Mailutha, J. T., & Shitanda, D. (2006). A finite element model for the analysis of temperature and moisture distribution in a solar grain dryer. The Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2 (1), 47-56.
13. Kaya, A., Aydın, O., & Demirtaş, C. (2007). Drying kinetics of red delicious apple. Biosystems Engineering, 96 (4), 517-524.
14. Abalone, R., Gastón, A., Cassinera, A., & Lara, M. A. (2006). Thin layer drying of amaranth seeds. Biosystems Engineering, 93 (2), 179-188.
15. Goyal, R. K., Kingsly, A. R. P., Manikantan, M. R., & Ilyas, S. M. (2007). Mathematical modelling of thin layer drying kinetics of plum in a tunnel dryer. Journal of food Engineering, 79 (1), 176-180.
16. Jayas, D. S., Cenkowski, S., Pabis, S., & Muir, W. E. (1991). Review of thin layer drying and wetting equations. Drying technology, 9 (3), 551-588.
17. R Core Team (2023). R: A language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.
18. Pruim, R. J., Kaplan, D. T., & Horton, N. J. (2017). The mosaic package: helping students to 'think with data' using R. R Journal, 9 (1), 77.
19. Kiburi, F. G., Kanali, C. L., Kituu, G. M., Ajwang, P. O., & Ronoh, E. K. (2020b). Quality evaluation of four banana cultivars dried in a greenhouse dryer operated under different energy modes. African Journal of Horticultural Science, 17, 53-66.
20. Kiburi, F. G., Mutwiwa, U. N., Ronoh, E. K., Chemain, N., & Yegon, H. K. (2017). Evaluating the performance of dehumidified solar dryer in drying of pumpkin slices (Cucurbita pepo). African Journal of Horticultural Science, 11, 72-81.
21. Ronoh, E. K., Kanali, C. L., Mailutha, J. T. and Shitanda, D. (2012). Evaluation of solar energy dryer systems on drying behaviour and quality attributes of amaranth grains. International Journal of Energy Science, 2 (5), 189-194.
22. Özbek, B., & Dadali, G. (2007). Thin-layer drying characteristics and modelling of mint leaves undergoing microwave treatment. Journal of Food Engineering, 83 (4), 541-549.
23. Olanipekun, B. F., Tunde-Akintunde, T. Y., Oyelade, O. J., Adebisi, M. G., & Adenaya, T. A. (2015). Mathematical modeling of thin-layer pineapple drying. Journal of food processing and preservation, 39 (6), 1431-1441.
24. Oyerinde, A. S. (2016). Modelling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) slices under direct sun and air assisted solar dryer. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3 (5), 257660.
25. Da Silva, W. P., e Silva, C. M., Gama, F. J., & Gomes, J. P. (2014). Mathematical models to describe thin-layer drying and to determine drying rate of whole bananas. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 13 (1), 67-74.
26. Tunde-Akintunde, T. Y. (2011). Mathematical modeling of sun and solar drying of chilli pepper. Renewable energy, 36 (8), 2139-2145.
27. Han, J. W., & Keum, D. H. (2011). Thin layer drying characteristics of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Stored Products Research, 47 (1), 32-38.
28. Ronoh, E. K., Kanali, C. L., Mailutha, J. T., & Shitanda, D. (2009). Modeling thin layer drying of amaranth seeds under open sun and natural convection solar tent dryer. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript 1420. Vol. XI. November 2009.
29. Yaldiz, O., Ertekin, C., & Uzun, H. I. (2001). Mathematical modeling of thin layer solar drying of sultana grapes. Energy, 26 (5), 457-465.