Life Cycle of CO 2 (LCCO 2) Evaluation and Service Life Prediction of RC Structure Considering Carbonation Degree of Concrete

Han Seung Lee, Mohamed Abdel Kader Ismail, Sang Hyun Lee, Mohd Warid Hussin  © by the authors

ISBN: 978-1-940366-47-0
Published Date: September, 2015
Pages: 128
Paperback: $99
Publisher: Science Publishing Group
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Book Description

Concrete carbonation decreases durability of concrete. Therefore, quantitative evaluating method for the amount of CO2 absorption through carbonation should be considered under the condition that carbonation does not affect durability of RC structure. This study proposed a quantitative evaluating method that overcomes the limitation of the traditional qualitative evaluation, which is carried out using the naked eye with respect to the color change boundary by spraying indicator. Carbonation depth becomes the basic data for estimating the residual life and durability of RC structures. To achieve this objective, the quantitative change of Ca(OH) 2 and CaCO3 for each depth in concrete according to the carbonation process is measured using TG/DTA in order to propose a quantitative method and an evaluation basis. Another goal is to propose evaluating method of CO2 absorption in the air through carbonation and how to evaluate LCCO2 (emission – absorption of CO2).

Author Introduction

Prof. Han Seung Lee is a professor at School of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, ERICA Campus, Ansan, South Korea. He got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, S. Korea in 1990 and 1992, respectively. Then he got his PhD from Dept. of Architecture, Tokyo University in 1997. He focuses his research on Sustainable Building Materials, High Performance Concrete, Durability Design of Structures, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Structures. Prof. Lee has numerous journal and conference papers, and 10 books.

Prof. Mohamed A. Ismail is currently a Research Professor at Hanyang University, Erica Campus, Ansan, South Korea. He received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from Alexandria University, Egypt in 1991 and 1996, respectively and his PhD from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore in 2003. His research work includes Concrete Technology, Smart Materials in Construction, High Performance Concrete, NDT, Sustainable Building Materials and Protection Methods of Reinforced Concrete Structures. He has published more than 60 papers in referred journals and conferences and 5 books.

Dr. Sang Hyun Lee got his PhD from School of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, South Korea in 2014. He is currently working as a Senior Researcher at R&D Institute, Lotte E & C, S. Korea. Dr. Lee research interests include Concrete Durability, Concrete Technology, High Performance Concrete, Eco-friendly Materials and Industrial Concrete Floor.

Prof. Mohd Warid Hussin is a senior professor at Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) in Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. He received his PhD degree from the University of Sheffield, UK in 1985. Prof. Warid is currently a senior research fellow at Construction Research Centre, CRC. He has been involved with research on Fibre Reinforced Composites, Blended Cement Concrete, Aerated Concrete, Concrete Repair Materials, Ferrocement Technology and Geopolymer Concrete and has published more than 200 papers in journals and conferences.

Table of Contents
  • The Whole Book

  • Front Matter

  • Chapter 1 Introduction

    1. 1.1 Background and Need of Research
    2. 1.1.1 Structural Standard Revision in Korea, 2012
    3. 1.1.2 A Qualitative Evaluation Limit of Concrete Carbonation Depth
    4. 1.1.3 CO2 Balance Evaluation of Concrete
    5. 1.2 Objectives of Research
    6. 1.3 Configuration and Contents of Research
  • Chapter 2 Literature Review

    1. 2.1 Outline
    2. 2.2 Concrete Carbonation
    3. 2.2.1 Definition and Risk of a Concrete Carbonation
    4. 2.2.2 Durability Degradation Mechanisms of a Concrete Carbonation
    5. 2.2.3 Changes in the Physical Properties of Concrete Subjected to Carbonation
    6. 2.3 A Quantitative Evaluation Method of Ca(OH)2, CaCO3 Using a TG/DTA
    7. 2.4 Carbonation Degree
    8. 2.5 Prediction Models of Concrete Carbonation
    9. 2.5.1 Experimental Models
    10. 2.5.2 Carbonation Prediction Models Using a Fick's Diffusion Law
    11. 2.5.3 Integrated Carbonation Prediction Model Considering the Hydration
    12. 2.5.4 Carbonation Prediction Model Using a FEM Analysis
    13. 2.6 Relationship Between pH Value and the Amount of Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3
    14. 2.7 Summary
  • Chapter 3 Evaluation of Concrete Carbonation Degree Using a TG/DTA

    1. 3.1 Outline
    2. 3.2 Cement Hydration Model
    3. 3.2.1 Prediction of Hydration Products
    4. 3.2.2 Prediction of Porosity Using a Cement Hydration Model
    5. 3.3 Quantitative Evaluation Experiments of Ca(OH)2 According to Hydration Time in Order to Verify Cement Hydration Model
    6. 3.3.1 Overview of Experiments
    7. 3.3.2 Cast and Curing Method of Test Specimens
    8. 3.3.3 Measurement Items and Method
    9. 3.3.4 Experimental Results and Analysis
    10. 3.3.5 Comparison Between Quantitative Prediction and Experimental Result of Ca(OH)2
    11. 3.4 Quantitative Measurement of Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3 According to Carbonation
    12. 3.4.1 Outline
    13. 3.4.2 Cast and Curing Method of Test Specimens
    14. 3.4.3 Accelerated Carbonation Test Method of Concrete and Mortar
    15. 3.4.4 Carbonation Depth Measurements by Phenolphthalein Indicator
    16. 3.4.5 Experimental Results and Analysis
    17. 3.5 Evaluation of Concrete Carbonation Degree
    18. 3.5.1 Co and Cmax Evaluation of the Carbonation Degree
    19. 3.5.2 Evaluation of Carbonation Degree
    20. 3.6 Proposal of a Quantitative Evaluation Standard for Carbonation Depth of Concrete
    21. 3.7 Summary
  • Chapter 4 Prediction of the Service Life of RC Structures Considering Concrete Carbonation

    1. 4.1 Outline
    2. 4.2 Concrete Carbonation Model Using a FEMA
    3. 4.2.1 A Diffusion Equation of CO2 in Concrete Based on the Chemical Reaction
    4. 4.2.2 The Progress of Carbonation Based on the Chemical Reaction
    5. 4.2.3 Boundary Conditions
    6. 4.2.4 Approximation of the Equation by a Differential Equation
    7. 4.3 Deduction of Input Parameters for FEMA Through Literature Review
    8. 4.3.1 Outline
    9. 4.3.2 Diffusion Coefficient of CO2 in Concrete
    10. 4.3.3 Reaction Rate Constant Between Ca(OH)2 and CO2
    11. 4.3.4 Concentration of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere
    12. 4.4 Prediction for Concrete Carbonation Progress Using FEMA
    13. 4.4.1 Analysis Outline
    14. 4.4.2 Prediction of Concrete Carbonation Depth with W/C Using FEMA
    15. 4.5 Summary
  • Chapter 5 LCCO2 Assessment of RC Structures Considering Concrete Carbonation Degree

    1. 5.1 Outline
    2. 5.2 Definition and Evaluation of CO2 Balance of Concrete
    3. 5.3 Calculation of CO2 Emissions and Absorption of Concrete
    4. 5.3.1 Estimation Outline of CO2 Emissions Arising from the Manufacture of Concrete
    5. 5.3.2 CO2 Absorption Calculation by Concrete Carbonation
    6. 5.3.3 CO2 Emissions-Absorption Evaluation Methodology Considering Concrete Production and the Use Period of Concrete
    7. 5.4 Case Study: Evaluation of the CO2 Balance of an Apartment Building in South Korea During Its Service Life
    8. 5.4.1 Overview of the Apartment Building
    9. 5.4.2 Calculating CO2 Emission from the Concrete Used in the Apartment Construction
    10. 5.4.3 Calculating CO2 Absorption of Concrete Used in the Apartment During Its 20-years’ Service Life
    11. 5.4.4 Evaluation of CO2 Balance of Concrete
    12. 5.5 Review of the Method to Improve the CO2 Balance of Concrete Considering Service Life of RC Structure During Century
    13. 5.5.1 Reduction of CO2 Emission of Concrete by Extending the Service Life of the Apartment Building
    14. 5.5.2 Reduction in CO2 Emission of Concrete by Using Blended Cement in Concrete
    15. 5.5.3 Increase in CO2 Absorption of Concrete by Extending the Service Life of the Apartment Building
    16. 5.5.4 Increase in CO2 Absorption of Concrete by Recycling Waste Concrete After Deconstruction of RC Structure
    17. 5.6 Review Summary: Improving Effect of LCCO2 with Proposed Methods
    18. 5.7 Summary
    19. 5.8 Conclusions
  • Back Matter