World Journal of Public Health

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

An Analysis of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Ghana: A Systematic Review

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in Ghana. Available records suggest a growing rise in hypertension prevalence in Ghana, accounting for close to 5% of the total admissions and about 15% of the total deaths in Ghana, The most common contributors to this increased prevalence include changing lifestyle and dietary choices as well as rural–urban migration. Other contributors to the issue include genetic predisposing factors and behavioural risk factors such as eating foods with high salt and fat content, low fruit and vegetable inclusion in diet, excessive alcohol use, positive perception of obesity, smoking, insufficient physical activity, poor management of stress and increasing life-expectancy. These risk factors are discussed under two main arms as; non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Employing a semi-systematic literature review research design, this paper reviews hypertension epidemiology in Ghana from an extensively large pool of research studies that investigate hypertension prevalence, medical therapy management and risk factor profile in Ghana. The main revelation from this work is the high prevalence of hypertension in specific groups with higher vulnerability such as women with low income, and the elderly with poor access to healthcare. This review also revealed a lack of a nationally representative, population-based dataset on hypertension in Ghana. This is of utmost importance to monitor the trends in hypertension prevalence across varied population demographics, socio-economic class, and time periods.

Hypertension, Cardiovascular Disease, Non-Communicable Disease, Risk Factors, Prevalence

APA Style

Jesse Kwaku Doe, Mercy Asaa Asiedu. (2023). An Analysis of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Ghana: A Systematic Review. World Journal of Public Health, 8(4), 261-265.

ACS Style

Jesse Kwaku Doe; Mercy Asaa Asiedu. An Analysis of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Ghana: A Systematic Review. World J. Public Health 2023, 8(4), 261-265. doi: 10.11648/j.wjph.20230804.12

AMA Style

Jesse Kwaku Doe, Mercy Asaa Asiedu. An Analysis of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Ghana: A Systematic Review. World J Public Health. 2023;8(4):261-265. doi: 10.11648/j.wjph.20230804.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Dosoo DK, Nyame S, Enuameh Y, Ayetey H, Danwonno H, Twumasi M, et al. Prevalence of Hypertension in the Middle Belt of Ghana: A Community-Based Screening Study. International Journal of Hypertension. 2019; 2019: 1089578.
2. Atibila F, Hoor Gt, Donkoh ET, Wahab AI, Kok G. Prevalence of hypertension in Ghanaian society: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment. Systematic Reviews. 2021; 10: 220.
3. Bigna JJ, Noubiap JJ. The rising burden of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. The Lancet Global Health. 2019; 7: e1295-e6.
4. Noubiap JJ, Nansseu JR, Nkeck JR, Nyaga UF, Bigna JJ. Prevalence of white coat and masked hypertension in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2018; 20: 1165-72.
5. Sawicka K, Szczyrek M, Jastrzebska I, Prasal M, Zwolak A, Daniluk J. Hypertension–the silent killer. Journal of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Research. 2011; 5.
6. Huang W. Energy alterations as the underlying cause of primary hypertension. ARC J Nephrol. 2019; 4: 33-44.
7. Siru R, Conradie JH, Gillett MJ, Page MM. Approach to the diagnosis of secondary hypertension in adults. Australian Prescriber. 2021; 44: 165.
8. Nuamah K, Affran Bonful H, Danso Yeboah J, Antwi Amankwaah E, Boakye D, Kwame Owusu S, et al. Characteristics of inpatient hypertension cases and factors associated with admission outcomes in Ashanti Region, Ghana: an analytic cross-sectional study. International Journal of Hypertension. 2017; 2017.
9. Bosu W, Bosu D. Prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension in Ghana: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one. 2021; 16: e0248137.
10. Bosu WK, Aheto JMK, Zucchelli E, Reilly ST. Determinants of systemic hypertension in older adults in Africa: a systematic review. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2019; 19: 173.
11. Ibrahim MM, Damasceno A. Hypertension in developing countries. The Lancet. 2012; 380: 611-9.
12. Sarfo FS, Mobula LM, Adade T, Commodore-Mensah Y, Agyei M, Kokuro C, et al. Low blood pressure levels & incident stroke risk among elderly Ghanaians with hypertension. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2020; 413.
13. Nyirenda MJ. Non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: understanding the drivers of the epidemic to inform intervention strategies. Int Health. 2016; 8: 157-8.
14. Kushitor MK, Boatemaa S. The double burden of disease and the challenge of health access: Evidence from Access, Bottlenecks, Cost and Equity facility survey in Ghana. PLoS One. 2018; 13: e0194677.
15. Laar AK, Adler AJ, Kotoh AM, Legido-Quigley H, Lange IL, Perel P, et al. Health system challenges to hypertension and related non-communicable diseases prevention and treatment: perspectives from Ghanaian stakeholders. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019; 19: 693.
16. Chastin SF, De Craemer M, De Cocker K, Powell L, Van Cauwenberg J, Dall P, et al. How does light-intensity physical activity associate with adult cardiometabolic health and mortality? Systematic review with meta-analysis of experimental and observational studies. British journal of sports medicine. 2019; 53: 370-6.
17. Dekkers OM, Vandenbroucke JP, Cevallos M, Renehan AG, Altman DG, Egger M. COSMOS-E: guidance on conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies of etiology. PLoS medicine. 2019; 16: e1002742.
18. Twagirumukiza M, De Bacquer D, Kips JG, de Backer G, Vander Stichele R, Van Bortel LM. Current and projected prevalence of arterial hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa by sex, age and habitat: an estimate from population studies. Journal of hypertension. 2011; 29: 1243-52.
19. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). Jama. 2014; 311: 507-20.
20. Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redán J, Zanchetti A, Böhm M, et al. 2013 Practice guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC): ESH/ESC Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension. Journal of hypertension. 2013; 31: 1925-38.
21. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo Jr JL, et al. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report. Jama. 2003; 289: 2560-71.
22. Gómez-Olivé FX, Ali SA, Made F, Kyobutungi C, Nonterah E, Micklesfield L, et al. Regional and sex differences in the prevalence and awareness of hypertension: an H3Africa AWI-Gen study across 6 sites in sub-Saharan Africa. Global heart. 2017; 12: 81-90.
23. Stringhini S, Forrester TE, Plange-Rhule J, Lambert EV, Viswanathan B, Riesen W, et al. The social patterning of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in five countries: evidence from the modeling the epidemiologic transition study (METS). BMC public health. 2016; 16: 1-10.
24. Osman A. Nutrition & Health Status, Quality of Life, and Associated Factors among Non-Institutionalized Older Ghanaians [MPhil in Human Nutrition and Dietetics]. Kumasi: Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. 2017.
25. Minicuci N, Biritwum RB, Mensah G, Yawson AE, Naidoo N, Chatterji S, et al. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic patterns of chronic non-communicable disease among the older adult population in Ghana. Glob Health Action. 2014; 7: 21292.
26. Nuertey BD, Alhassan AI, Nuertey AD, Mensah IA, Adongo V, Kabutey C, et al. Prevalence of obesity and overweight and its associated factors among registered pensioners in Ghana; a cross sectional studies. BMC obesity. 2017; 4: 1-12.
27. Sanuade OA, Boatemaa S, Kushitor MK. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Ghanaian population: Evidence from the Ghana demographic and health survey. PloS one. 2018; 13: e0205985.
28. Addo J, Smeeth L, Leon DA. Hypertension in sub-saharan Africa: a systematic review. Hypertension. 2007; 50: 1012-8.
29. Acheampong K, Nyamari JM, Ganu D, Appiah S, Pan X, Kaminga A, et al. Predictors of hypertension among adult female population in Kpone-Katamanso District, Ghana. International Journal of Hypertension. 2019; 2019.
30. Buford TW. Hypertension and aging. Ageing research reviews. 2016; 26: 96-111.
31. Sarki AM, Nduka CU, Stranges S, Kandala N-B, Uthman OA. Prevalence of hypertension in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine. 2015; 94.
32. Zhou B, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, Bixby H, Danaei G, Cowan MJ, et al. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19• 1 million participants. The Lancet. 2017; 389: 37-55.
33. Jaung MS, Willis R, Sharma P, Aebischer Perone S, Frederiksen S, Truppa C, et al. Models of care for patients with hypertension and diabetes in humanitarian crises: a systematic review. Health Policy and Planning. 2021; 36: 509-32.
34. Band R, Bradbury K, Morton K, May C, Michie S, Mair FS, et al. Intervention planning for a digital intervention for self-management of hypertension: a theory-, evidence- and person-based approach. Implementation Science. 2017; 12: 25.
35. Koduah A, Nonvignon J, Colson A, Kurdi A, Morton A, van der Meer R, et al. Health systems, population and patient challenges for achieving universal health coverage for hypertension in Ghana. Health Policy and Planning. 2021; 36: 1451-8.