World Journal of Applied Chemistry

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Treatment of Effluent Textile Using Nanofiltration: Study of Fouling and Antifouling

The textile industry is a large water consumer. As regulations become stringent and the cost of freshwater increases, reclamation of wastewater becomes more and more attractive. Membrane methods, including UF, MF and NF, belong to high-efficiency processes which can be competitive with traditional methods of water treatment. In this paper the nanofiltration membrane, has shown their effectiveness as a solution for the cleaning and recycling of textile effluents. Experiments demonstrated that membrane treatment is a very promising advanced treatment option for pollution control for textile industry effluents. However, the phenomenon of fouling seems to be their major disadvantage, thus causing a crucial reduction in productivity and a high cost of maintenance. Trying to contribute to the existing efforts to cure to this problem, our study is related to the analysis and the development of the parameters which assign the fouling and the cleaning of the NF membranes during the filtration of the textile effluents containing reactive dyes. This study enables us to get rid of this phenomenon, which occurs during the frontal filtration of the solutions containing a mixture of “dye-salt”. For this purpose, three theoretical models were compared. We concluded also that rapid cake formation occurred during initial filtration and caused an initial sharp decrease in permeate flux, and the most descriptive model is cake filtration. A regeneration efficiency index allows increasing the optimal conditions of this operation.

Nanofiltration, Fouling, Antifouling, Effluent Textile, Membrane

APA Style

Aouatef Boughdiri, Karim Kostantini, Mohamed Oussama Zouaghi, Ezzedine Ferjani. (2023). Treatment of Effluent Textile Using Nanofiltration: Study of Fouling and Antifouling. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 8(2), 43-52.

ACS Style

Aouatef Boughdiri; Karim Kostantini; Mohamed Oussama Zouaghi; Ezzedine Ferjani. Treatment of Effluent Textile Using Nanofiltration: Study of Fouling and Antifouling. World J. Appl. Chem. 2023, 8(2), 43-52. doi: 10.11648/j.wjac.20230802.14

AMA Style

Aouatef Boughdiri, Karim Kostantini, Mohamed Oussama Zouaghi, Ezzedine Ferjani. Treatment of Effluent Textile Using Nanofiltration: Study of Fouling and Antifouling. World J Appl Chem. 2023;8(2):43-52. doi: 10.11648/j.wjac.20230802.14

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Ismail Koyuncu; Reactive dye removal in dye/salt mixtures by nanofiltration membranes containing vinylsulphone dyes: Effects of feed concentration and cross flow velocity, Desalination 143 (2002) 243-253.
2. M. Marcuccl, G. Nosenzo, G. Capannelli, I. Ciabatti, D. Corrieri, G. Ciardelli; Treatment and reuse of textile effluents based on new ultrafiltration and other membrane technologies; Desalination 138 (2001) 75-82.
3. Jekel, M. Wastewater treatment in the textile industry. In: Treatment of wastewaters from textile processing, TU Berlin, Series of publications biological Abwasserreiigung 193, Berlin, pp 15-24, (1997).
4. C. Suksaroj, M. Hran, C. Allgre, F. Persin; Treatment of textile plant effluent by nanofiltration and/or reverse osmosis for water reuse; Desalination 178 (2005) 333-341.
5. Ciardelli, G., Corsi, L. and Marcucci, M. Membrane Separation for Wastewater Reuse in the Textile Industry. Resources. Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 31, pp 189-197. (2000).
6. Van’tHul, J. P., Racz, I. G. and Reith, T. The Application of Membrane Technology for Reuse of Process and Minimization of Waste Water in a Textile Washing Range, JSDC, Vol. 113, pp 287-294. (1997).
7. A. Bes-Pià, M. I. Iborra-Clar, A. Iborra-Clar, J. A. Mendoza-Roca, B. Cuartas-Uribe, M. I. Alcaina-Miranda; Nanofiltration of textile industry wastewater using a physicochemical process as a pre-treatment; Desalination 178 (2005) 343-349.
8. I. Petrinic, NPR. Andersen, S. Sostar-Truk, A. M. Le Marechal, The removal of reactive dye compounds using nanofiltation, Dyes Pigments 74 (2007) 512-518.
9. Van der Bruggen. B, Daems. B, Wilms. D, Vandecasteele. C, Mechanisms of retention and flux decline for the nanofiltration of dye baths from the textile industry, Separation and Purification Technology, pp 519–528, (2001).
10. Wenzel, H. et al. Reclamation and reuse of process water from reactive dyeing of cotton, Desalination, Vol. 106, pp 195-203. (1996).
11. I. Koyuncu, Reactive dye removal in dye/salt mixtures by nanofiltation membranes containing vinylsulphone dyes: Effectes of feed concentration and cross flow velocity, Desalination, Vol. 143 (2002) 243-253.
12. P. Skrabal, F. Bangerter, K. Hamada, T. Iijima, Entropy contribution to an azo dye aggragation in aqueous solution. Dyes Pigments 8 (1987) 371-374.
13. Tay, J., Liu, J. and Sun, D. D. Effect of solution physico-chemistry on the charge property of nanofiltration membranes, Water Research, pp 585-598. V. 36, (2002).
14. V. Freger, T. Arnot, J. Howell. Seperation of concentrated organic/inorganic salt mxutures by nanofiltration, J. Membrane. Science 178 (2000) 185-193.
15. Bellona, C. and Drewes, J. E. The role of membrane surface charge and solute pysicochemical properties in the rejection of organic acids by NF membranes, J. Memb. Sci, in press. (2005).
16. C. Fersi, L. Gzara, M. Dhahbi, Treatment of textile effluents by membrane technologies Desalination 185 (2005), 399-409.
17. D. Norberg, S. Hong, J. Taylor, Y. Zhao, Surface characterization and performance evaluation of commercial fouling resistant low-pressure RO membranes, Desalination 202 (2007) 45–52.
18. B. Van der Bruggen, M. Manttari, M. Nystrom, Drawbacks of applying nanofiltration and how to avoid them: a review, Sep. Purif. Technol. 63 (2008) 251–263.
19. L. Braeken, B. Van der Bruggen, C. Vandecasteele, Flux decline in nanoriltration due to adsorption of dissolved organic compounds: model prediction of time dependency, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006) 2957–2962.
20. M. Cheryan, Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook, Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., Lancaster-Basel, 1998.
21. Boerlage S. F. E., Kennedy M, Aniye M. P., Schippers J. C., Applications of the MFIUF to measure and predict particulate fouling in RO systems, Journal of Membrane Sciences, pp. 97-116. V. 220. (2003).
22. Boerlage S. F. E., Kennedy M. D, Aniye M. P., Abogrean E, Tarawneh Z. S., Schippers J. C., The MFI-UF as a water quality test and monitor, Journal of Membrane Sciences, pp. 271-289. V. 211, (2003).
23. Boerlage S. F. E., Kennedy M. D., Dickson M. R., El-Hodali D. E. Y., Schippers J. C., The modified fouling index using ultrafiltration membranes (MFI-UF): characterisation, filtration mechanism and proposed reference membrane, Journal of Membrane Sciences, p. 1-21. V. 197, (2002).
24. Schippers J. C., Verdouw J., The modified fouling index, a method of determining the fouling characteristics of water, Desalination, pp. 137-148. V. 32, (1980).
25. Hermia J., Constant pressure blocking filtration laws – application to power-law fluids, Institut of Chemical Engineers, p 183-187. V. 60, (1982).
26. Madaeni. S. S, Mohamamdi. T, Moghadam. M. K, Chemical cleaning of reverse osmosis membranes, Desalination, pp. 77–82, V. 134, (2001).
27. Ksontini. K, Ferjani. E, et Roudesli. M. S, Improvement of textile wastewater treatment by combination of ultrafitration and nanofiltration membrane processes, Journal de la Société Chimique de Tunisie (JSCT),, volume 8 N°1. (2006).
28. Shu. L, Waite. T. D., Bliss. P. J., Fanec A., Jegatheesand V., Nanofiltration for the possible reuse of water and recovery of sodium chloride salt from textile effluent, Desalination, pp. 235–243, V. 172, (2005).