Science Journal of Energy Engineering

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Application of Improved Blasting Techniques in Open Pit Mining for Maximum Productivity: A Case of Oakyam Quarry Limited, Ogun State, Nigeria

Blasting is an important unit operation in mining and civil engineering projects that is aimed at effective rock fragmentation. However, it is always associated with some harmful and unwanted effects on the surrounding environment and humans, including ground vibration, air blast, flying rock, etc. Open-pit mining is the most widely used means of mineral exploitation in Nigeria, where it has been employed with considerable success, including at Oakyam Quarry. The conventional blasting technique has been applied in the quarry since its inception, with mixed results. Significant challenges associated with blasting, such as ground vibration, air blast, and fly rock occurrences, have been incurred at the quarry owing to the adoption of this conventional method. It is thus important to develop an alternative method to the conventional method to prevent further occurrences of the adverse blasting effects. This paper aims at developing an alternative blasting technique to improve the productivity and safety of lives and properties in proximity to quarry operations. The newly developed method, termed an alternative blasting technique, entails the replacement of delay-relays with electric detonators for blast sequencing, replacing laterite with 16mm granite chips for stemming, and adopting deck charging. The alternative method was tested and compared with the conventional methods adopted over the years by Oakyam Quarry. The technique recorded a higher degree of fragmentation with minimal air blast, ground vibration, and flying rocks. Likewise, a good muck-pile with a 14–16% reduction in explosive consumption was achieved, thereby increasing the profitability of the quarry operations. The newly developed blasting technique is proposed and recommended for adoption by engineers and blasters in various fields and aspects of blasting.

Blasting, Fragmentation, Ground Vibration, Fly Rock, Explosive

APA Style

Adedara Frank, Peter Kolapo, Nafiu Ogunsola, Prosper Munemo, Abayomi Akinola. (2022). Application of Improved Blasting Techniques in Open Pit Mining for Maximum Productivity: A Case of Oakyam Quarry Limited, Ogun State, Nigeria. Science Journal of Energy Engineering, 10(2), 12-23. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.sjee.20221002.11

ACS Style

Adedara Frank; Peter Kolapo; Nafiu Ogunsola; Prosper Munemo; Abayomi Akinola. Application of Improved Blasting Techniques in Open Pit Mining for Maximum Productivity: A Case of Oakyam Quarry Limited, Ogun State, Nigeria. Sci. J. Energy Eng. 2022, 10(2), 12-23. doi: 10.11648/j.sjee.20221002.11

AMA Style

Adedara Frank, Peter Kolapo, Nafiu Ogunsola, Prosper Munemo, Abayomi Akinola. Application of Improved Blasting Techniques in Open Pit Mining for Maximum Productivity: A Case of Oakyam Quarry Limited, Ogun State, Nigeria. Sci J Energy Eng. 2022;10(2):12-23. doi: 10.11648/j.sjee.20221002.11

Copyright © 2022 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Khandelwal, M. & Monjezi, M., 2013. Prediction of backbreak in open-pit blasting operations using the machine learning method. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 46 (2), pp. 389 - 396.
2. Campbell, A. & Thurley, M., 2017. Application of laser scanning to measure fragmentation in underground mines. Mining Technology, pp. 1-8.
3. Michaux, S. & Djordjevic, N., 2005. Influence of explosive energy on the strength of the rock fragments and SAG mill throughput. Minerals Engineering, 18 (4), pp. 439–448.
4. Cho, S. & Kaneko, K., 2004. Rock Fragmentation Control in Blasting. Materials Transactions, Volume 455, pp. 1722-1730.
5. Brinkman, J., 1987. Separating shock wave and gas expansion breakage mechanism. Colorado, Denver USA, 2nd International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, pp. 6-15. Keystone, Colorado, 23-26.
6. Ogunsola, N.O., Olaleye, B.M, Saliu, M.A. 2017. Effects of weathering on some physical and mechanical properties of Ewekoro Limestone, South-western Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Science (IJEAS) 4 (11), pp 72-81.
7. Wilson, W. H., 1987. An experimental and theoretical analysis of stress wave and gas pressure effects in bench blasting, Maryland, USA: University of Maryland.
8. Fourney, W. L., Dick, R. D., Wang, X. J. & Wei, Y., 1993. Fragmentation mechanism in crater blasting. International journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, Volume 30, pp. 413–429.
9. Liu, S.-f., Lu, S.-f., Wan, Z.-j. & Cheng, J.-y., 2019. Investigation of the influence mechanism of rock damage on rock fragmentation and cutting performance by the discrete element method. Royal Society Open Science, 6 (190116), pp. 1-13.
10. Faramarzi, F., H., M. & Farsangi, M. E., 2013. A rock engineering systems based model to predict rock fragmentation by blasting. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, Volume 60, pp. 82–94.
11. Monjezi, M., Mehrdanesh, A., Malek, A. & Khandelwal, M., 2013. Evaluation of effect of blast design parameters on flyrock using artificial neural networks. Neutral Computing and Application, Volume 23, pp. 349–356.
12. Kolapo, P. & Munemo, P., 2021. Investigating the correlations between point load strength index, uniaxial compressive strength and Brazilian tensile strength of sandstones. A case study of QwaQwa sandstone deposit. International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering, 12 (1), pp. 67-83.
13. Simataa, E., 2019. Investigating slope stability in open pit mine - A case study of the phyllites wall at sentinel pit (Msc Thesis), Johannesburg South Africa: University of Witwatersrand.
14. Liu, L. S., Yan, L., Dong, B. B., Liu, W., Yi, W. H. & Zhao, K., 2017. Detection and Recognition Method of Misfire for Chamber (Deep-Hole) Blasting Based on RFID. IEEE Access, pp. 1-9.
15. Yin, Z-q., Hu, Z-x., Wei, Z-d., Zhao, G-m., Hai-Feng, M., Zhang, Z., Feng, R-m., 2018. Assessment of Blasting-Induced Ground Vibration in an Open-Pit Mine under Different Rock Properties. Advances in Civil Engineering, pp. 1-10.
16. Dong, L., Sun, D., Shu, W. & Li, X., 2020. Exploration: Safe and clean mining on Earth and asteroids. Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 257, pp. 1–11.
17. Grechkovskii, B., 1975. Reducing the probability of misfire in short-delay blasting. Refractories, Volume 16, pp. 95–98.
18. Hamdi, E., Romdhane, N., Mouza, J. & Cleac’h, J., 2008. Fragmentation Energy in Rock Blasting. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Volume 26, pp. 133 - 146.
19. Ogunsanwo, F. O.; Olowofela, J. A.; Okeyode, I. C.; Idowu, O. A. & Olurin, O. T., 2019. Aeroradiospectrometry in the spatial formation characterization of Ogun State, south-western, Nigeria. Scientific African, Volume 6, pp. 1-21.
20. Bale, R., Bayewu, O., Folorunso, I. & Oloruntola, M. O., 2011. Estimation of Reserve – Overburden Ratio of A Proposed Quarry Site Using Resistivity Survey: A Case Study of Ajebo, Near Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 7 (10), pp. 1402-1410.
21. Duze, M. & Ojo, A., 1982. Senior School Atlas. Lagos, Nigeria: Macmillan Educational.
22. Oyedotun, T. & Obatoyinbo, O., 2012. Hydro-geochemical evaluation of groundwater quality in Akoko North West local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Revista Ambiente & Água - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science, 7 (1), pp. 67-80.
23. Dyno Nobel, 2010. Blasting and Explosives Quick Reference Guide, Asia Pacific: Dyno Nobel Asia Pacific.
24. Lundborg, N., Persson, A. & Ladegaard-Pedersen, H. R., 1975. Keeping the lid on flyrock in open-pit blasting. Engineering and Mining Journal, 176 (5), pp. 95-100.
25. Quezada DB. 2006. Economic benefits associated with “Fragmentation” using electronic detonators. In: Proceeding of the eighth international conference on rock fragmentation by blasting—Fragblast-8, Santiago, Chile; pp. 221-222.
26. Zhang, Z. X. 2014. Effect of double-primer placement on rock fracture and ore recovery. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 71, 208-216.
27. Zhang, Z. X., & Naarttijärvi, T. 2006. Applying fundamental principles of stress waves to production blasting in LKAB Malmberget mine. In Proceedings of eighth international symposium rock fragmentation by blasting, Santiago, Chile (pp. 369-374).
28. Zhang, Z. X. 2011. Reducing eyebrow break caused by rock blasting in Malmberget mine. Blasting and Fragmentation, 5 (1), 1-10.