Science Journal of Chemistry

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Analysis by LC-Ms/Ms of Drugs Sold in the Markets of Kara and Lome

Received: 29 December 2023    Accepted: 25 January 2024    Published: 1 February 2024
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Abstract

The falsification of medicines is a worldwide scourge, but one that particularly affects developing countries, causing a great deal of damage, including deaths. Fake medicines are seized by customs every year. However, very few studies have looked at the qualitative and quantitative analysis of medicines found in Africa, both in pharmacies and on the markets. This study aims to analyze several drugs purchased in Togo in the cities of Kara and Lomé to ensure that they actually have the active ingredients indicated inside, which is one of the guarantees of their quality. The samples were analyzed by HPLC coupled with MS/MS which is a method of choice for the identification of molecules of interest. Analysis of the spectra obtained showed that the samples purchased on the markets (analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics) contain all the active ingredients indicated on the package. This result is reassuring because 100% of the samples analyzed are of good quality. However, it will be necessary to make additional studies by adding other classes of drugs such as anti-malarials that are most affected by falsification on the African continent. A quantitative study should also be done to determine the amount of each active ingredient in the tablets studied. It will be interesting to study the excipients contained in drugs because, although they are not active principles, they have an influence on the metabolism of active molecules.

DOI 10.11648/sjc.20241201.12
Published in Science Journal of Chemistry (Volume 12, Issue 1, February 2024)
Page(s) 15-22
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Drugs, LC-MS/MS, Kara, Lomé

References
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[2] UN-DESA. Sustainable Development Goal 3. Progress of goal 3 in 2017. 2017 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg3
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[4] Nayyar GM, Attaran A, Clark JP, Culzoni MJ, Fernandez FM, Herrington JE. 2015. Responding to the pandemic of falsified medicines. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 113–118. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.14-0393
[5] Rahman M.S., Yoshida N., Tsuboi H., Tomizu N., Endo J., Miyu O., Akimoto Y., Kimura K. (2018). The health consequences of falsified medicines − a study of the published literature. Trop. Med. Int. Health. 23 (12), 1294-1303 https://doi:10.1111/tmi.13161volume
[6] Buckley G. J., Gostin L. O. (2013). Countering the problem of falsified and substandard drugs. National Academies Press
[7] Mori A. T., Meena E., Kaale, E. A. (2018). Economic cost of substandard and falsified human medicines and cosmetics with banned ingredients in Tanzania from 2005 to 2015: a retrospective review of data from the regulatory authority. BMJ open, 8(6). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021825
[8] Ozawa S., Evans D. R., Bessias S., Haynie D. G., Yemeke T. T., Laing S. K., Herrington J. E. (2018). Prevalence and estimated economic burden of substandard and falsified medicines in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA network open, 1(4), e181662-e181662. https://doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.1662
[9] WHO. (2017). 1 in 10 medical products in developing countries is substandard or falsified. https://www.who.int/news/item/28-11-2017-1-in-10-medical-products-in-developing-countries-is-substandard-or-falsified.
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[11] WHO, 2008. IMPACT: Counterfeit Drugs Kill! Brochure. https://www.gphf.org/images/downloads/impactbrochure.pdf
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[14] Kohnert, D. (2021). Togo 2020: Politique intérieure, affaires étrangères, le développement socio-économique. In V. Adetula, B. Kamski, A. Mehler, & H. Melber (Eds.), Africa Yearbook. Vol. 17, Politics, economy and society South of the Sahara, 1-24.
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[16] Bassat Q., Tanner M., Guerin P. J., Stricker K., Hamed K. (2016). Combating poor-quality anti-malarial medicines: a call to action. Malaria journal, 15(1), 1-12.
[17] Nayyar G. M., Breman J. G., Newton P. N., Herrington J. (2012). Poor-quality antimalarial drugs in southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The Lancet infectious diseases, 12(6), 488-496.
[18] Ziavrou, K. S., Noguera, S., & Boumba, V. A. (2022). Trends in counterfeit drugs and pharmaceuticals before and during COVID-19 pandemic. Forensic Science International, 338, 111382.
[19] Pouillot, R., Bilong, C., Boisier, P., Ciss, M., Moumouni, A., Amani, I., Nabeth, P. (2007). The informal circuit of medicines in Yaoundé and Niamey: study of the population of sellers and the quality of medicines distributed. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 101(2), 113-118.
[20] Khuluza F, Kigera S, Heide L. (2017). Low Prevalence of Substandard and Falsified Antimalarial and Antibiotic Medicines in Public and Faith-Based Health Facilities of Southern Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg.
[21] Tittarelli R., Pellegrini M., Scarpellini M. G., Marinelli E., Bruti V., Di Luca N. M., Zaami S. (2017). Hepatotoxicity of paracetamol and related fatalities. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 95-101.
[22] Kantor T. G. (1979). Ibuprofen. Annals of Internal Medicine, 91(6), 877-882.
[23] Shin D. H., Priefer R. (2023). A Review of the Efficacy of LC-MS. Quantitative and Qualitative Determination Technologies of Counterfeit Drugs.
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  • APA Style

    Marie-France, B. (2024). Analysis by LC-Ms/Ms of Drugs Sold in the Markets of Kara and Lome. Science Journal of Chemistry, 12(1), 15-22. https://doi.org/10.11648/sjc.20241201.12

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    ACS Style

    Marie-France, B. Analysis by LC-Ms/Ms of Drugs Sold in the Markets of Kara and Lome. Sci. J. Chem. 2024, 12(1), 15-22. doi: 10.11648/sjc.20241201.12

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    AMA Style

    Marie-France B. Analysis by LC-Ms/Ms of Drugs Sold in the Markets of Kara and Lome. Sci J Chem. 2024;12(1):15-22. doi: 10.11648/sjc.20241201.12

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  • @article{10.11648/sjc.20241201.12,
      author = {Bakaï Marie-France},
      title = {Analysis by LC-Ms/Ms of Drugs Sold in the Markets of Kara and Lome},
      journal = {Science Journal of Chemistry},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {15-22},
      doi = {10.11648/sjc.20241201.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/sjc.20241201.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.sjc.20241201.12},
      abstract = {The falsification of medicines is a worldwide scourge, but one that particularly affects developing countries, causing a great deal of damage, including deaths. Fake medicines are seized by customs every year. However, very few studies have looked at the qualitative and quantitative analysis of medicines found in Africa, both in pharmacies and on the markets. This study aims to analyze several drugs purchased in Togo in the cities of Kara and Lomé to ensure that they actually have the active ingredients indicated inside, which is one of the guarantees of their quality. The samples were analyzed by HPLC coupled with MS/MS which is a method of choice for the identification of molecules of interest. Analysis of the spectra obtained showed that the samples purchased on the markets (analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics) contain all the active ingredients indicated on the package. This result is reassuring because 100% of the samples analyzed are of good quality. However, it will be necessary to make additional studies by adding other classes of drugs such as anti-malarials that are most affected by falsification on the African continent. A quantitative study should also be done to determine the amount of each active ingredient in the tablets studied. It will be interesting to study the excipients contained in drugs because, although they are not active principles, they have an influence on the metabolism of active molecules.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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    T1  - Analysis by LC-Ms/Ms of Drugs Sold in the Markets of Kara and Lome
    AU  - Bakaï Marie-France
    Y1  - 2024/02/01
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    DO  - 10.11648/sjc.20241201.12
    T2  - Science Journal of Chemistry
    JF  - Science Journal of Chemistry
    JO  - Science Journal of Chemistry
    SP  - 15
    EP  - 22
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2330-099X
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/sjc.20241201.12
    AB  - The falsification of medicines is a worldwide scourge, but one that particularly affects developing countries, causing a great deal of damage, including deaths. Fake medicines are seized by customs every year. However, very few studies have looked at the qualitative and quantitative analysis of medicines found in Africa, both in pharmacies and on the markets. This study aims to analyze several drugs purchased in Togo in the cities of Kara and Lomé to ensure that they actually have the active ingredients indicated inside, which is one of the guarantees of their quality. The samples were analyzed by HPLC coupled with MS/MS which is a method of choice for the identification of molecules of interest. Analysis of the spectra obtained showed that the samples purchased on the markets (analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics) contain all the active ingredients indicated on the package. This result is reassuring because 100% of the samples analyzed are of good quality. However, it will be necessary to make additional studies by adding other classes of drugs such as anti-malarials that are most affected by falsification on the African continent. A quantitative study should also be done to determine the amount of each active ingredient in the tablets studied. It will be interesting to study the excipients contained in drugs because, although they are not active principles, they have an influence on the metabolism of active molecules.
    
    VL  - 12
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Author Information
  • Laboratory of Organic Chemistry and Environmental Sciences (LaCOSE), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Kara University, Kara, Togo

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