Research & Development

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Three Culturally Sensitive Research Methods for Educational Administration and Leadership Research

The social, political, economic and cultural contexts of today's educational systems and schools are diverse in ways that require greater attention to equity, diversity, social inclusion, ethics and perspectives of school leaders and learners. In some developing countries like Cameroon in Central Africa where education leaders are not trained for leadership role. It’s the duty of the educational system willing to encourage research to meet the unique needs of educators and students who represent underserved corruption, tribalism, nepotism, and cultural groups experiencing marginalization. These matters move beyond the personal and become professional, as they are further complicated by high-stakes accountability standards and the prioritization of “closing the achievement gap” in schools and the different educational systems. As such, this paper offers multicultural research considerations of three contrasting research methods used in educational leadership and administration research seeking to explore the views of school leaders in Cameroon in relation to effective school leadership preparation and management development in preparing aspiring heads for successful school leadership. This paper aims to find out, how close-end Leadership and Management Development Questionnaire (LMDQ), field document and standardized open-ended interviews methods are suited procedures, strategies, processes or techniques for collecting and analysing data in order to create better understanding of Leadership and Administration Development Research. The author presents a rationale and theoretical framework for the use of these three contrasting research methods often used together in a qualitative mixed method studies investigating educational method of assessing school leadership and management development models. While LMDQ can provide evidence of patterns amongst large populations, qualitative field document analysis and standardized open-ended interview research methods often gather more in-depth insights on participant attitudes, thoughts, and actions. The findings of this qualitative mixed method studies generate confirmatory results despite differences in methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation.

Culturally Sensitive Research Methods, Leadership and Management Development Questionnaire, Field Documents, Standardized Open-ended Interview, Administration and Leadership Research

APA Style

Frederick Ebot Ashu. (2021). Three Culturally Sensitive Research Methods for Educational Administration and Leadership Research. Research & Development, 2(4), 103-115.

ACS Style

Frederick Ebot Ashu. Three Culturally Sensitive Research Methods for Educational Administration and Leadership Research. Res. Dev. 2021, 2(4), 103-115. doi: 10.11648/j.rd.20210204.14

AMA Style

Frederick Ebot Ashu. Three Culturally Sensitive Research Methods for Educational Administration and Leadership Research. Res Dev. 2021;2(4):103-115. doi: 10.11648/j.rd.20210204.14

Copyright © 2021 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Akoulouze, R., Ongbwa, L., Salla, C., Ndjie, J., Kenne, E., Coadou, J., Ngoube, M., Soucat, I., Itoe, M., Mongue, D., Molinier, M., Martin, C., Tchakou, J., Tondji, M., Morand, M., Eppoh, A., Mouaze, R., Hayatou, O., Kamga, S., Husson, G., Noa, P., Edjang, C., Martin, J. (1999) A Guide for Primary School Head Teachers. Republic of Cameroon: Yaounde: Ministry of National Education, CEPER S. A.
2. BERA, British Educational Research Association (2004) Revised Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research. Macclesfield: BERA.
3. Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A., Dennison, P. (2003) A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Edited Version of a Report for Chase Consulting and the Management Standards Centre. Exeter: University of Exeter, Centre for Leadership Studies.
4. Burgess, R. G. (1984) In the Field: An Introduction to Field Research. London: Allen and Unwin.
5. Bush, T. and Jackson, D. (2002) A Preparation for School Leadership: International Perspectives. Education Management and Administration, 30 (4), 417-429.
6. Cameroon Ministry of Basic Education (2010) Basic Education School Map. Statistical Year Book. Yaounde: Cellule de la Planification-DPPC-MINEDUB.
7. Cameroon Ministry of Education (1995) The National Education Forum. Yaounde: MINEDUC.
8. Carmines, E. G. and Zeller, R. A. (1979) Reliability and Validity Assessment. Series: Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences. London: Sage University Paper.
9. Chambers, N. (2009) Changing Times: The Role of the Curriculum Middle Manager within Colleges of Further Education. EdD Dissertation. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.
10. Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2000) Research Methods in Education. Fifth Edition. London: Routledge Falmer Press.
11. Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2003) Research Methods in Education. Fifth Edition. London: Routtledge.
12. Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2007) Research Methods in Education. Sixth Edition. London: Routledge.
13. Cooper, D. R. and Schindler, P. S. (2002) Business Research Method. New York: McGraw- Hill Companies.
14. Denscombe, M. (2003) The Good Research Guide. Maidenhead, Open University.
15. Ebot Ashu, F. (2020) Decolonising the Curriculum at Cameroonian Universities: The Case of the Department of Education Foundation and Administration. African Journal of Education and Practice (AJEP). 6 (5), 13-39.
16. Ebot Ashu, F. (2014) Effectiveness of School Leadership and Management Development in Cameroon: A Guide for Educational Systems, Schools and School Leaders. Newcatle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
17. Ebot Ashu, F. (2021) Theories and Practices of Educational Leadership, Administration and Planning in Cameroon. Limbe: Pres Book, Limbe.
18. Ebot Ashu, F. (2018) Leadership, Management and Administrative Roles of School Leaders in Cameroon. Journal of the Commonwealth Council for Educational Management and Administration. 46 (2), 110-128.
19. Ebot Ashu, F. (2019) ‘Leadership and Management Preparation and Development of School Leaders in Cameroon’, In Pontso, M. and Tony Bush (ed.). Preparation and Development of School Leaders in Africa. London: Bloomsbury.
20. Ebot Ashu, F. & Bisschoff, T. (2015) Leadership and Management Development Programmes in Cameroon for primary school leaders. International Journal of Education and Social Science, 2 (12), 82-105.
21. GESP, Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (2010) Reference Framework for Governmental Action over the period (2010-2020). Yaounde: The Prime Minister’s Office.
22. Hammersley, M., and Atkinson, P. (1989). Ethnography: Principles in practice. London: Routledge.
23. Hansen, H. (2005) Choosing Evaluation Models. A Discussion on Evaluation Design. SAGE Publications. London: Thousand Oaks and New Delhi.
24. Harber, C. and Davies, L. (1997) School Management and Effectiveness in Developing Countries. London: Cassell.
25. Holstein, J. A., and Gubrium, J. F. (1995) The Active Interview. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
26. Johnson, R. B., Onwuegbuzie, A. J. and Turner, L. A. (2007) Towards a Definition of Mixed Methods Research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1 (2), 112–133.
27. Miles, M. and Huberman, A. (1994) Qualitative data Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
28. Neuendorf, K. (2002) The Content Analysis Handbook. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
29. Nwokah, N. G., Kiabel, B. D. and Briggs, A. E. (2009) Philosophical Foundations and Research Relevance: Issues for Marketing Information Research. European Journal of Scientific Research, 33 (3), 429–437.
30. Patton, M. Q. (2002) Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
31. Rhodes, C., Brundrett, M., Nevill, A. (2009). Just the Ticket? The National Professional Qualification and the Transition to Headship in the East Midlands of England. Educational Review, 61 (4), 449-468.
32. Silverman, D. (2000) Doing Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
33. Singh, G. (2009) The National Professional Qualification For Headship (NPQH) Programme For Secondary School Headteachers In Malaysia: An Evaluative Case Study. EdD Dissertation. Birmingham: University of Birmingham. [online]. Available from: [Accessed December 2010].
34. Stenbacka, C. (2001) Qualitative research requires quality concepts of its own. Management Decision. 39 (7), 551–555.
35. Wolcott, F. H. (1973) The Man in the Principal’s Office. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wiston.
36. Yin, R. (2003) Application of case study research. Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
37. Yin, R. (2009) Case Study Research Design Methods, Fourth Edition. Applied Social Research Methods Series. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.
38. Yu, G. (2007) Research Evidence of School Effectiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa. EdQual Working Paper No. 7. Bristol: University of Bristol.