Advances in Networks

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Residue Number System Fade Mitigation Technique with Error Detection and Correction on a Satellite Communication Link

Rain fade is the loss of signal power at the receiver of a telecommunication system mainly due to absorption and scattering caused by rain in the transmission medium, especially at frequencies above 10 GHz. In order to combat the loss of the signal power at the receiver, there is the need to employ rain fade mitigation techniques. Consequently, researchers have been studying how rain affects the signal in different geographical locations as well as proposing some mitigation techniques. Power control is one of the mitigation techniques that have been proposed. But this technique has some associated challenges. Increasing the power will lead to an increase in cost of transmission which will eventually be passed on to the consumer thereby making satellite services expensive. It requires high power in uplink and downlink which increases the burden either on user terminal or satellite payload. Also, because of health concerns there is a limit to the amount of power that can be radiated to the ground and this is governed by international agreements. Another power management drawback in using this technique is that, uplink power control is not efficient in directing the added power to only the ground station experiencing path attenuation, because the additional power is distributed to all locations within the satellite antenna coverage area. In this paper, we address the power control challenges, by leveraging on the inherent properties of Residue Number System (RNS) and Redundant Residue Number System (RRNS) to propose an RNS architecture using the moduli set {22n+1-1, 22n -1, 22n, 24n+1 -1, 22n +1} that can mitigate rain fade in the satellite link as well as detect and correct multiple errors. In digital communication systems, the bit energy, eb, is the most important parameter in determining the communications link performance. Numerical analysis shows that the proposed scheme performs better than the traditional method as indicated in the high energy per bit value obtained in the proposed system in comparison with the traditional method, all other things being equal.

Rain Fade Mitigation, Power Control, Residue Number System, Redundant Residue Number System

APA Style

Stephen Akobre, Mohammed Ibrahim Daabo, Abdul-Mumin Salifu. (2021). Residue Number System Fade Mitigation Technique with Error Detection and Correction on a Satellite Communication Link. Advances in Networks, 9(2), 23-32.

ACS Style

Stephen Akobre; Mohammed Ibrahim Daabo; Abdul-Mumin Salifu. Residue Number System Fade Mitigation Technique with Error Detection and Correction on a Satellite Communication Link. Adv. Netw. 2021, 9(2), 23-32. doi: 10.11648/

AMA Style

Stephen Akobre, Mohammed Ibrahim Daabo, Abdul-Mumin Salifu. Residue Number System Fade Mitigation Technique with Error Detection and Correction on a Satellite Communication Link. Adv Netw. 2021;9(2):23-32. doi: 10.11648/

Copyright © 2021 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Crane, R. (1997). Electromagnetic Wave Propagation through Rain, John Wiley, New York, 1996, Chapter 2-3.
2. Maitra, A., De, A., and Adhikari, A. (2019). Rain and Rain-induced Degradation of Satellite links over a tropical location, IEEE transaction on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 67, Issue 8, pp. 5507-5518.
3. Ulaganathen K., Rahman A. T., Islam R. and Malek A. N (2015), Mitigation Technique for Rain Fade Using Frequency Diversity Method, IEEE 12th Malaysia International Conference on Communications (MICC), Kuching, Malaysia.
4. Nwaogu C. C., Amadi A. O., and Alozie I. S (2019), Mitigating Rain Attenuation on Wireless Communication Link Using Adaptive Power Control, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science WCECS 2019, San Francisco, USA, pp. 22-24.
5. Ippolito J. Louis (1986), Radiowave Propagation in Satellite Communications, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York.
6. Patel, B. (2007). Emerging Digital Transmission Techniques for HDTV.
7. Claudio, J., R., and Jacob, S. (2003). Adaptive Image De-noising and Edge Enhancement I Scale-Space using Wavelet Transforms. Pattern Recognition Letters, Volume 13, No. 7, pp 965-971.
8. Taylor F. J. (1984): “Residue Arithmetic: A Tutorial with Examples,” Computer, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 50-62.
9. Arash H., Keivan N. and Reza R.(2008): A new high dynamic range moduli set with efficient reverse converter, An internation Journal of Computers and Mathematics with Applications Vol 55, Issue 4,, pp. 660–668.
10. Gbolagade, K., A. (2010). Effective Reverse Conversion in Residue Number System Processors. PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology (TU-Delft), The Netherlands.
11. Molahosseini A. S. and Navi K. (2007), New Arithmetic Residue to Binary Converters, International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Systems, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 296-300.
12. Szabo N. S. and Tanaka R. I. (1967): Residue Arithmetic and its Applications to computer Technology, New York: McGraw-Hill.
13. Soderstrand M. A., Jenkins W. K., Jullien G. A. and Taylor F. J. (1986): Residue Number System Arithmetic: Modern Applications in Digital Signal Processing New York: IEEE Press.
14. Wang Y., Xiaoyu S., and Mostapha A. (2002). Adder Based Residue to Binary Number Converters, IEEE Transactions On Signal Processing, Vol. 50, No. 7, pp. 1772-1779.
15. Haron, N., Z. and Hamdioui, S. (2009). Residue-Based Code for Reliable Hybrid Memories. Proceedings of IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Nanoscale Architecture (NanoArch), pp. 27–32.
16. Cao B., Chip-Hong C. and Thambipillai S. (2003): Adder Based Residue to Binary Converters for a New Balanced 4-Moduli Set, Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, vol. 2 pp. 820-825.
17. Gbolagade K. A. (2013). An Efficient MRC based RNS-to-Binary Converter for the, {22n+1-1, 2n, 22n-1} Moduli Set, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology, (IJARCET), vol. 2, issue 10 pp: 2661-2664.
18. Siewobr H. and Gbolagade K. A. (2014). Modulo Operation Free Reverse Conversion in the Moduli Set {22n+1-1, 2n, 22n-1} International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 8887) Volume 85 – No 18.
19. Roshanzadeh M., Ghaffari A. and Saqaeeyan S. (2011): Using Residue Number Systems for Improving QoS and Error Detection & Correction in Wireless Sensor Networks, Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN), IEEE 3rd International Conference, pp. 1-5.
20. Jenn-Dong S. and Krishna H. (1993), ‘Fast Algorithm for Multiple Errors Detection and Correction in Redundant Residue Number System’, Journal of Circuit, Systems and Signal Processing December Volume 12, Issue 4, pp. 503-531.
21. Krishna, H., Lin K. Y, and Sun D. (1992), "A coding theory approach to error control in redundant residue number systems - Part I: Theory and single error correction," IEEE Transactions on Circuit and Systems Vol 39 issue 1 pp: 8-17.
22. Shahana, T., K., Jose B., R., Poulose J., K., and Sasi, S. (2008). RRNS-Convolutional Concatenated Code for OFDM Based Wireless Communication using Direct Analog-Residue Converter. Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 33, pp. 1-8.
23. Akobre, S., Daabo, M., I., Salifu, A., (2020). Rain fade mitigation technique using Residue Number System Architecture on Ku Band Satellite Communication Link, Advances in Networks, Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp. 59 – 66.