American Journal of Nano Research and Applications

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Structural, Thermal and Electrical Studies of Al2O3 Nanoparticle Soaked Electrolyte Gel Films for Novel Proton Conducting (H+ ion) Eco-friendly Device Applications

An attempt has been made to prepare and characterize ammonium acetate (NH4CH3COO) salt and Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3)-soaked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based [PVA-NH4CH3COO:×wt%Al2O3] system nanocomposite polymer gel electrolyte (NCPGE) films using a solution cast technique. The SEM and XRD studies revealed improvement in amorphous nature. The degree of crystallinity and average crystallite size of electrolytes with respect to Al2O3 were projected to ascertain improvement in amorphous nature. FTIR studies confirmed the complexation between PVA, NH4CH3COO and Al2O3. The DSC studies show better thermal response upon addition of Al2O3 nanofiller. TGA studies reveal the mass of nanocomposite polymer gel electrolyte decreases continuously with increase in the Al2O3 nanofiller contents. Closer assessment of conductivity behavior shows two maximas: one around 0.5wt% and the other around 1wt% filler concentration which is a typical feature for nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes. The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity shows a combination of Arrhenius and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) behavior. The ionic conductivity is found to increase with addition of filler concentration and optimum ionic conductivity of 3.88×10−4 Scm−1 with wide electrochemical stability of ±4.78V is achieved at 1wt% Al2O3 nano filler and confirms the availability of H+ ion (proton) in the system suitable for the development of environment friendly rechargeable batteries application.

XRD, DSC, Conductivity, Nanocomposite Polymer Gel Electrolytes, Proton-Conducting Batteries

APA Style

Neelesh Rai, Chandra Prakash Singh, Lovely Ranjta. (2022). Structural, Thermal and Electrical Studies of Al2O3 Nanoparticle Soaked Electrolyte Gel Films for Novel Proton Conducting (H+ ion) Eco-friendly Device Applications. American Journal of Nano Research and Applications, 10(1), 1-8.

ACS Style

Neelesh Rai; Chandra Prakash Singh; Lovely Ranjta. Structural, Thermal and Electrical Studies of Al2O3 Nanoparticle Soaked Electrolyte Gel Films for Novel Proton Conducting (H+ ion) Eco-friendly Device Applications. Am. J. Nano Res. Appl. 2022, 10(1), 1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.nano.20221001.11

AMA Style

Neelesh Rai, Chandra Prakash Singh, Lovely Ranjta. Structural, Thermal and Electrical Studies of Al2O3 Nanoparticle Soaked Electrolyte Gel Films for Novel Proton Conducting (H+ ion) Eco-friendly Device Applications. Am J Nano Res Appl. 2022;10(1):1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.nano.20221001.11

Copyright © 2022 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Verma, M. L., Minakshi, M., & Singh, N. K. (2014). Synthesis & characterization of solid polymer electrolyte based on activated carbon for solid state capacitor. Electrochimica Acta, 137, 497-503. doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2014.06.039.
2. Zhou, D., Shanmukaraj, D., Tkacheva, A., Armand, M., & Wang, G. (2019). Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium-Based Batteries: Advances and Prospects. Chem, 5 (9), 2326-2352. doi:
3. Cheng, X., Pan, J., Zhao, Y., & Liao, M. (2017). Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Electrochemical Energy Storage. Advanced Energy Materials, 8 (7): 1702184. doi: 10.1002/aenm.201702184.
4. Wen, P., Zhao, Y., Wang, Z., Lin, J., Chen, M., & Lin, X. (2021). Solvent-Free Synthesis of the Polymer Electrolyte via Photo-Controlled Radical Polymerization: Toward Ultrafast In-Built Fabrication of Solid-State Batteries under Visible Light. ACS Applied Materials And Interfaces, 13 (7), 8426–8434. doi:
5. Jeon, J. K., Kwak, S. Y., & Cho, B. W. (2005). Solvent-Free Polymer Electrolytes. Journal Of The Electrochemical Society, 152 (8), 1583-1589. doi: 10.1149/1.1939167.
6. Kumar, K. N., Vijayalakshmi, L., & Ratnakaram, Y. C. (2015). Energy transfer based photoluminescence properties of (Sm3+ + Eu3+): PEO+PVP polymer films for red luminescent display device applications. Optical Materials, 45, 148-155. doi: 10.1016/J.OPMAT.2015.03.025.
7. Eltoun, M. S. A., Nasr, R. M. O., & Omer, H. M. A. (2020). Preparation and characterization of CuO nanoparticles using sol-gel method and its application as CuO/Al2O3. American Journal of Nano Research and applications, 8 (2), 16-21. doi: 10.11648/j.nano.20200802.
8. Wu, H. D., Wu, I. D., & Chang, F. C. (2001). The interaction behavior of polymer electrolytes composed of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4). Polymer, 42 (2), 555-562.
9. Song, M. K., Kim, Y. T., & Tae, Y. (2003). Thermally Stable Gel Polymer Electrolytes. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 150 (4), 439-444. doi: 10.1149/1.1556592.
10. Huy, V. P. H., So, S., & Hur J. (2021). Inorganic Fillers in Composite Gel Polymer Electrolytes for High-Performance Lithium and Non-Lithium Polymer Batteries. Nanomaterials, 11 (3), 614. doi: 10.3390/nano11030614.
11. Stephan, A. M., & Nahm, K. S. (2006). Review on composite polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. Polymer, 47 (16), 5952-5964. doi: 10.1016/j.polymer.2006.05.069.
12. Chand, N., Rai, N., Agrawal, S. L., & Patel, S. K. (2011). Morphology, thermal, electrical and electrochemical stability of nano aluminium-oxide-filled polyvinyl alcohol composite gel electrolyte. Bulletin Of Material Science, 34 (7), 1297-1304. doi: 10.1007/s12034-011-0318-7.
13. Awadhia, A., & Agrawal, S. L. (2007). Structural, thermal and electrical characterizations of PVA:DMSO:NH4SCN gel electrolytes. Solid State Ionics, 178 (13-14), 951-958. doi: 10.1016/j.ssi.2007.04.001.
14. Agrawal, S. L., Rai, N., Natarajan, T. S., & Chand, N. (2013). Electrical characterization of PVA-based nanocomposite electrolyte nanofibre mats doped with a multiwalled carbon nanotube. Ionics, 19, 145-154. doi: 10.1007/s11581-012-0713-0.
15. Deepa, M., Sharma, N., Agnihotry, S. A., & Chandra, R. (2002). FTIR investigations on ion-ion interactions in liquid and gel polymeric electrolytes: LiCF3SO3-PC-PMMA. Journal Of Materials Science, 37, 1759-1765. doi: 10.1023/A:1014921101649.
16. Ghezelbash, Z., Ashouri, D., Mousavian, S., Ghandi, A. H., & Rahnama, Y. (2012). Surface modified Al2O3 in fluorinated polyimide/Al2O3 nanoparticles: Synthesis and characterization. Bulletin Of Materials Science, 35, 925-931. doi: 10.1007/s12034-012-0385-4.
17. Chand, N., Rai, N., Natarajan, T. S., & Agrawal, S. L. (2011). Fabrication and Characterization of nano Al2O3 filled PVA: NH4SCN Electrolyte Nanofibers by Electrospinning. Fibers and Polymers, 12 (4), 438-443. doi:
18. Agrawal, S. L., & Shukla, P. K. (2000). Structural and electrical characterization of polymeric electrolytes: PVA-NH4SCN system. Indian Journal Of Pure And Applied Physics, 38, 53-61.
19. Agrawal, S. L., & Awadhia, A. (2004). DSC and conductivity studies on PVA based proton conducting gel electrolytes. Bulletin of Materials Science, 27, 523-527. doi: 10.1007/BF02707280.
20. Mukherjee, G. S., Shukla, N., Singh, R. K., & Mathur, G. N. (2004). Studies on the properties of carboxymethylated polyvinyl alcohol. Journal Of Scientific And Industrial Research, 63, 596-602.
21. Dibbern, D. B., & Atvars, T. D. Z. (2000). Thermal transitions of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel sensed by a fluorescent probe. Journal Of Applied Polymer Science, 75 (6), 815-824. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(20000207)75:6<815:AID-APP11>3.0.CO;2-0.
22. Zou, G. X., Jin, P. Q., & Xin, L. Z. (2008). Extruded Starch/PVA Composites: Water Resistance, Thermal Properties, and Morphology. Journal Of Elastomers and Plastics, 40, 303-316. doi: 10.1177/0095244307085787.
23. Sharma, S., Dhiman, N., Pathak, D., & Kumar, R. (2016). Effect of Donor Number of Plasticizers on Conductivity of Polymer Electrolytes Containing NH4F. i-Manager’s Journal On Material Science, 3 (4), 28-34. doi: 10.26634/jms.3.4.4825.
24. Ito, T., Sun, L., & Crooks, R. M. (2003). Electrochemical Etching of Individual Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes. Electrochemical And Solid-State Letters 6 (1), C4-C7.
25. Hinds, B. J., Chopra, N., Rantell, T., Andrews, R., Gavalas, V., & Bachas, L. G. (2004). Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Membranes. Science, 303, 62-65. doi: 10.1126/science.1092048.
26. Haque, M. A., Sulong, A. B., Shyuan, L. K., Majlan, E. H., Husaini, T., & Rosli, R. E. (2021). Synthesis of polymer/MWCNT nanocomposite catalyst supporting materials for high-temperature PEM fuel cells. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 46 (5) 4339-4353. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.10.223.
27. Ranjta, L., Singh, C. P., & Rai, N. (2022). Experimental investigations on nano-ferrite embedded nanocomposite polymer electrolytes for proton-conducting rechargeable batteries application. Materials Today: Proceedings, 54 (3), 702–709. doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2021.10.408.