Journal of Political Science and International Relations

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Paradigms of Humanitarian Intervention and Peace Support Operation in War Zone: A Reflection of Russo-Ukrainian War

Humanitarian intervention and Peace support operation has become an increasingly important and as well as turning into controversial topic over time. The Russian-Ukrainian War, which began in 2014, serves as a relevant case study for the discussion of humanitarian intervention and Peace support operation. The Russia-Ukraine war is a complex and politically sensitive matter involving several parties with competing interests. The violence within the region has resulted in a substantial amount of human suffering, including displacement, injuries, and deaths; as a result, there is an immediate need for humanitarian relief to assist those who have been affected. However, before taking any action, especially one with military repercussions, there is a need to weigh the political ramifications and ensure that doing so will not only make things worse but also violate international norms. Thus, the difficulty lies in bringing about a permanent and peaceful conclusion to the conflict while also providing adequate humanitarian aid in various forms. Therefore, this paper examines the impact of humanitarian intervention and Peace support operation in the context of the Russian-Ukrainian War. From the findings of the paper, it was revealed that the war has had a huge humanitarian impact on both Russia and Ukraine. While allies of either side could not officially participate in the war, they provided each side with various supports ranging from military assistance, financial aid, healthcare services to diplomatic support, to bring the woes of the war to an end. This paper concludes that the Russian-Ukrainian War serves as a key example of the complexities and challenges of humanitarian intervention in situations of war. It highlights the importance of finding new and innovative approaches to address mass atrocities, while also emphasizing the need for the international community to find a way to address the humanitarian crisis in conflict-affected regions.

Conflict, Humanitarian Intervention, Peace Support Operation, Russia-Ukraine, War

APA Style

Osimen Goddy Uwa, Moyosoluwa Dele-Dada. (2023). Paradigms of Humanitarian Intervention and Peace Support Operation in War Zone: A Reflection of Russo-Ukrainian War. Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 6(2), 38-48.

ACS Style

Osimen Goddy Uwa; Moyosoluwa Dele-Dada. Paradigms of Humanitarian Intervention and Peace Support Operation in War Zone: A Reflection of Russo-Ukrainian War. J. Polit. Sci. Int. Relat. 2023, 6(2), 38-48. doi: 10.11648/j.jpsir.20230602.12

AMA Style

Osimen Goddy Uwa, Moyosoluwa Dele-Dada. Paradigms of Humanitarian Intervention and Peace Support Operation in War Zone: A Reflection of Russo-Ukrainian War. J Polit Sci Int Relat. 2023;6(2):38-48. doi: 10.11648/j.jpsir.20230602.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Finnemore, M. (2015). Constructing norms of humanitarian intervention. In Conflict After the Cold War (pp. 272-289). Routledge.
2. Weiss, T. G. (2016). Humanitarian intervention. John Wiley & Sons.
3. Klose, F. (2015). The emergence of humanitarian Intervention. The Emergence of Humanitarian Intervention. Ideas and Practice from the Nineteenth Century to the Present, 1-28.
4. Lava, S. A., de Luca, D., Milani, G. P., Leroy, P., Ritz, N., & de Winter, P. (2022). Please stop the Russian-Ukrainian war–children will be more than grateful. European Journal of Pediatrics, 181 (6), 2183-2185.
5. van den Driessche, J. J., Plat, J., & Mensink, R. P. (2018). Effects of superfoods on risk factors of metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of human intervention trials. Food & function, 9 (4), 1944-1966.
6. Reiffen, F., & Winters, N. (2018). "Care in crisis: ethnographic perspectives on humanitarianism": conference report. Medizinethnologie: Körper, Gesundheit und Heilung in einer globalisierten.
7. Paris, R. (2014). The ‘Responsibility to Protect’and the structural problems of preventive humanitarian intervention. International Peacekeeping, 21 (5), 569-603.
8. Stahn, C. (2017). Responsibility to protect: political rhetoric or emerging legal norm?. In Globalization and Common Responsibilities of States (pp. 147-168). Routledge.
9. Menon, R. (2016). The conceit of humanitarian intervention. Oxford University Press.
10. Pringle, J., & Hunt, M. (2015). Humanitarian action. Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics, 1-10.
11. Walling, C. B. (2015). Human rights norms, state sovereignty and humanitarian intervention. Hum. Rts. Q., 37, 383.
12. Bellamy, A. J. (2015). Humanitarian intervention. In The Routledge Handbook of Global Ethics (pp. 139-152). Routledge.
13. Simms, B., & Trim, D. J. (Eds.). (2011). Humanitarian intervention: a history. Cambridge University Press.
14. Hehir, A. (2013). Humanitarian intervention: an introduction. Bloomsbury Publishing.
15. Heinze, E. A. (2009). Waging Humanitarian War: The Ethics, Law, and Politics of Humanitarian Intervention. State University of New York Press.
16. Krieg, A. (2012). Motivations for humanitarian intervention: Theoretical and empirical considerations. Springer Science & Business Media.
17. Hilpold, P. (2014). R2P and Humanitarian Intervention in a Historical Perspective. Responsibility to Protect (R2P): A New Paradigm of International Law?
18. Kelsen, H. (2017). Collective security and collective self-defense under the Charter of the United Nations. In The Use of Force in International Law (pp. 97-110). Routledge.
19. Booth, K. (2012). The Kosovo tragedy: The human rights dimensions. Routledge.
20. Hillebrecht, C., White, T. R., & McMahon, P. C. (2013). International Norms and Human Security: Libya, R2P, and the Humanitarian Intervention Consensus ERIC A. HEINZE AND HELEN KE RW IN. In State Responses to Human Security (pp. 164-186). Routledge.
21. Evans, G. (2015). From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect. Political Theory Without Borders, 275-292.
22. Thakur, R. (2016). Rwanda, Kosovo, and the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, 94.
23. Crossley, N. (2018). Is R2P still controversial? Continuity and change in the debate on ‘humanitarian intervention’. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 31 (5), 415-436.
24. Donnelly, J. (2017). Genocide and humanitarian intervention. In Genocide and Human Rights (pp. 385-401). Routledge.
25. Welsh, J. M. (2019). Norm robustness and the responsibility to protect. Journal of Global Security Studies, 4 (1), 53-72.
26. Mingst, K. A., Karns, M. P., & Lyon, A. J. (2018). The United Nations in the 21st century. Routledge.
27. Kabia, J. M. (2016). Humanitarian intervention and conflict resolution in West Africa: from ECOMOG to ECOMIL. Routledge.
28. Marxsen, C. (2015). Territorial Integrity in International Law–Its Concept and Implications for Crimea. Heidelberg Journal of International Law, 75 (1), 7-26.
29. Alston, P., & Mégret, F. (Eds.). (2013). The United Nations and human rights: a critical appraisal. OUP Oxford.
30. Recchia, S. (2017). Authorising humanitarian intervention: a five-point defence of existing multilateral procedures. Review of International Studies, 43 (1), 50-72.
31. Aydin, D. (2014). The interpretation of genocidal intent under the genocide convention and the jurisprudence of international courts. The Journal of Criminal Law, 78 (5), 423-441.
32. Coyne, C. J. (2013). Doing bad by doing good: Why humanitarian action fails. Stanford University Press.
33. Stanley, B., & Brown, G. K. (2012). Safety planning intervention: a brief intervention to mitigate suicide risk. Cognitive and behavioral practice, 19 (2), 256-264.
34. Valentino, B. A. (2011). The true costs of humanitarian intervention-the hard truth about a noble notion. Foreign Aff., 90, 60.
35. Duggan, N. (2017). The People's Republic of China and European Union security cooperation in Africa: Sino-EU security cooperation in Mali and the Gulf of Aden. International Journal of China Studies, 8 (1), 1-23.
36. Donnelly, J., & Whelan, D. J. (2020). International human rights. Routledge.
37. Hurd, I. (2011). Is humanitarian intervention legal? The rule of law in an incoherent world. Ethics & International Affairs, 25 (3), 293-313.
38. Asamoah, O. Y. (2012). The legal significance of the declarations of the General Assembly of the United Nations. Springer.
39. Badescu, C. G. (2014). The evolution of international responsibility: From responsibility to protect the responsibility while protecting. Int'l Stud. J., 11, 45.
40. VanLandingham, R. (2012). Politics or Law: The Dual Nature of the Responsibility to Protect. Denv. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y, 41, 63.
41. Labonte, M. (2013). Human rights and humanitarian norms, strategic framing, and intervention: lessons for the responsibility to protect. Routledge.
42. Chandler, D. (2014). The Responsibility to Protect? Imposing the ‘Liberal Peace'. In Peace operations and global order (pp. 59-81). Routledge.
43. Alles, D., & Badie, B. (2016). Sovereigntism in the international system: from change to split. European Review of International Studies, 3 (2), 5-19.
44. Bojang, M. B. (2016). The hidden agenda behind the invasion of Iraq: The unjust war over Iraq in 2003. Central European Journal of Politics, 2 (2), 1-14.
45. Welsh, J. M. (2016). The responsibility to protect after Libya & Syria. Daedalus, 145 (4), 75-87.
46. Brockmeier, S., Stuenkel, O., & Tourinho, M. (2016). The impact of the Libya intervention debates on norms of protection. Global Society, 30 (1), 113-133.
47. Richmond, S. (2016). Why is humanitarian intervention so divisive? Revisiting the debate over the 1999 Kosovo intervention. Journal on the Use of Force and International Law, 3 (2), 234-259.
48. Garwood-Gowers, A. (2016). China's “Responsible Protection” concept: Reinterpreting the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and military intervention for humanitarian purposes. Asian Journal of International Law, 6 (1), 89-118.
49. Akbarzada, S., & Mackey, T. K. (2018). The Syrian public health and humanitarian crisis: a ‘displacement’in global governance?. Global Public Health, 13 (7), 914-930.
50. Cheskin, A., & March, L. (2015). State–society relations in contemporary Russia: New forms of political and social contention. East European Politics, 31 (3), 261-273.
51. Kuzio, T. (2022). Russian Nationalism and the Russian-Ukrainian War. Routledge.
52. Miller, A. I. (2022). National identity in Ukraine: history and politics. Russia in Global Affairs, (4), 46-65.
53. Angevine, R., Warden, J. K., Keller, R., & Frye, C. (2019). Learning lessons from the Ukraine conflict. Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses, document NS D-10367, May, 1, 1.
54. Petro, N. N. (2015). Understanding the other Ukraine: identity and allegiance in russophone Ukraine. Ukraine and Russia: People, Politics, Propaganda and Perspectives, Bristol, United Kingdom: E-International Relations Edited Collections, 19-35.
55. Woźniak, M. (2016). The Ukraine crisis and shift in US foreign policy. International Studies: Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal (IS), 18 (2), 87-102.
56. Siddiqui, S. S. M., Aamir, S. B., & Khan, S. M. (2022). Russia Ukraine War: An Analytical Study. Pakistan Journal of International Affairs, 5 (2).
57. Bebier, A. (2015). Crimea and the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. Romanian J. Eur. Aff., 15, 35.
58. Katchanovski, I. (2016). The separatist war in Donbas: a violent break-up of Ukraine?. European Politics and Society, 17 (4), 473-489.
59. Fedorenko, V., & Fedorenko, M. (2022). Russia’s Military Invasion of Ukraine in 2022: Aim, Reasons, and Implications. Krytyka Prawa. Niezależne studia nad prawem, 14 (1), 7-42.
60. Mariotti, S. (2022). A warning from the Russian–Ukrainian war: avoiding a future that rhymes with the past. Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, 49 (4), 761-782.
61. Konstantinov, V., Reznik, A., & Isralowitz, R. (2023). The impact of the Russian–Ukrainian War and relocation on civilian refugees. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 28 (3), 267-269.
62. Haque, U., Naeem, A., Wang, S., Espinoza, J., Holovanova, I., Gutor, T., ... & Nguyen, U. S. D. (2022). The human toll and humanitarian crisis of the Russia-Ukraine war: the first 162 days. BMJ global health, 7 (9), e009550.
63. Health–Europe, T. L. R. (2022). The regional and global impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The Lancet Regional Health-Europe, 15.
64. Pezard, S. (2018). European Relations with Russia: Threat Perceptions, Responses and Strategies in the Wake of the Ukrainian Crisis. RAND Corporation Santa Monica United States.
65. Dzhus, M., & Golovach, I. (2023). Impact of Ukrainian-Russian war on health care and humanitarian crisis. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness, 17, e340.
66. Ociepa-Kicińska, E., & Gorzałczyńska-Koczkodaj, M. (2022). Forms of Aid Provided to Refugees of the 2022 Russia–Ukraine War: The Case of Poland. International journal of environmental research and public health, 19 (12), 7085.
67. Yıldız, T. (2023). The European Union–Russia–Ukraine Triangle: Historical Background of Relations, Russia–Ukraine War, and Future Prospects. In The European Union in the Twenty-First Century: Major Political, Economic and Security Policy Trends (pp. 195-210). Emerald Publishing Limited.
68. Jain, N., Prasad, S., Bordeniuc, A., Tanasov, A., Shirinskaya, A. V., Béla, B.,... & Reinis, A. (2022). European countries step-up humanitarian and medical assistance to Ukraine as the conflict continues. Journal of primary care & community health, 13, 21501319221095358.
69. Guenette, J. D., Kenworthy, P. G., & Wheeler, C. M. (2022). Implications of the War in Ukraine for the Global Economy.
70. Karolewski, I. P., & Cross, M. A. K. D. (2017). The EU's Power in the Russia–Ukraine Crisis: Enabled or Constrained?. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 55 (1), 137-152.
71. Mills, C., & Curtis, J. (2022). Military assistance to Ukraine since the Russian invasion. House of Commons Library.
72. Antezza, A., Frank, A., Frank, P., Franz, L., Kharitonov, I., Kumar, B.,... & Trebesch, C. (2022). The Ukraine Support Tracker: Which Countries Help Ukraine and How? (No. 2218). KIEL working paper.
73. Pronko, L., Furman, I., Kucher, A., & Gontaruk, Y. (2020). Formation of a state support program for agricultural producers in Ukraine considering world experience. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism.-2020.-Vol. 9, № 1.-S. 364-379.
74. El-Badawy, E., Munasinghe, S., Bukarti, A. B., & Bianchi, B. (2022). Security, Soft Power and Regime Support: Spheres of Russian Influence in Africa. Tony Blair Institute for Global Changes, 23.
75. Carment, D., Nikolko, M., & Belo, D. (2019). Gray zone mediation in the Ukraine crisis: comparing Crimea and Donbas. In Research Handbook on Mediating International Crises (pp. 124-140). Edward Elgar Publishing.
76. Zachau, J. (2021). Russia’s Instrumentalisation of Conflict in Eastern Europe: The Anatomy of the Protracted Conflicts in Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova. SCEEUS Reports on Human Rights and Security in Eastern Europe, 6.
77. Cafruny, A., Fouskas, V. K., Mallinson, W. D., & Voynitsky, A. (2023). Ukraine, Multipolarity and the Crisis of Grand Strategies. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 25 (1), 1-21.
78. Awuah, W. A., Mehta, A., Kalmanovich, J., Yarlagadda, R., Nasato, M., Kundu, M.,... & Sikora, V. (2022). Inside the Ukraine war: health and humanity. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 98 (1160), 408-410.
79. World Health Organization. (2022). Response to the Ukraine Crisis: interim report, February to June 2022 (No. WHO/EURO: 2022-5897-456620-65580). World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe.
80. Davis, C. M. (2016). The Ukraine conflict, economic–military power balances and economic sanctions. Post-Communist Economies, 28 (2), 167-198.
81. Perepelytsia, H. (2021). The dilemma of war and peace in the trend of the XXI century (Russian–Ukrainian case). Przegląd Strategiczny, 11 (14), 249-275.
82. Karakiewicz-Krawczyk, K., Zdziarski, K., Landowski, M., Nieradko-Heluszko, A., Kotwas, A., Szumilas, P.,... & Karakiewicz, B. (2022). The Opinions of Poles about the Need to Provide Humanitarian Aid to Refugees from the Area Covered by the Russian–Ukrainian War. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (20), 13369.