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Research Article |

Biofungicide Based Calcium, Azadirachta indica and Sida acuta Against Phytophthora megakarya

Plant pesticides are a complementary means to other control methods and an alternative to chemical control. The identification of potential plants that can be used in plant protection against pests is increasing enormously, but the availability of bioformulations is low. The new products developed for plant protection aim to protect them against a larger range of pathogens and include elicitors. The objective of this study is to produce an optimal emulsion bioformulation based on neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), Sida (Sida acuta Burm. F.) and calcium, that can be used for plant protection against pests. The surface plot of the four factor simplex lattice designs data help to construct significant linear models for stability and activity. The best formulation was selected and optimize. The four Factor mixture designs and stability as well as activity models showed that the best formulation has neem oil (No) 12% (v/v), neem aqueous extract (Ne) 9% (w/v), sida weed hydroalcoholic extract (Se) 9% (w/v), Oyster shell’s calcium-rich extract (Ca) 6% (w/v) and tween-80 (Tw) 24% (v/v) with the production process “AQ + (Tw+No)”. Therefore, the optimize formulation has No 12% (v/v), Ne 9% (w/v), Se 9% (w/v), Ca 4.5%(w/v), calcium oxide (CaO 1.5% (w/v) and Tw 24% (v/v) with the production process “(Tw+No) + AQ”. The best formulation and the optimize one at ambient temperature have 100% of stability and a significant dose dependent activity (P <0.05) against plant pathogens. Apply optimize formulation at 1% on the detached cocoa leaves before inoculation with Phytophthora megakarya reduces disease severity index from 4.2 to 1.5. These results suggest that our models and bioformulation can be useful for T. cocoa protection against P. megakarya, the causal agent of black pod disease.

Theobroma cocoa L., Phytophthora megakarya, Bioformulation of Fungicide, Neem, Sida Weed, Oyster Shell

APA Style

Foka, E. T., Tayo, P. M. T., Pacha, T. F. M., Dzelamonyuy, A., Sado, S. L. K., et al. (2023). Biofungicide Based Calcium, Azadirachta indica and Sida acuta Against Phytophthora megakarya. Journal of Plant Sciences, 11(6), 171-181.

ACS Style

Foka, E. T.; Tayo, P. M. T.; Pacha, T. F. M.; Dzelamonyuy, A.; Sado, S. L. K., et al. Biofungicide Based Calcium, Azadirachta indica and Sida acuta Against Phytophthora megakarya. J. Plant Sci. 2023, 11(6), 171-181. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20231106.11

AMA Style

Foka ET, Tayo PMT, Pacha TFM, Dzelamonyuy A, Sado SLK, et al. Biofungicide Based Calcium, Azadirachta indica and Sida acuta Against Phytophthora megakarya. J Plant Sci. 2023;11(6):171-181. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20231106.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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