Journal of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Insecticides Susceptibility of Malaria Vectors in Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria Using WHO Susceptibility Test

Pyrethroid insecticides are recommended for use in long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) due to their low mammalian toxicity and fast action. Currently pyrethroid resistance has been reported in western and eastern Africa, therefore monitoring resistance is important in all malaria endemic countries. The overall goal of this study is to monitor resistance levels in malaria vectors in Okitipupa. Susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides was determined in Ayeka, Idepe, Igbodigo and Okitipupa districts of Okitipupa town using WHO test. Three sentinel sites from each district were selected and mosquitoes were collected from each sentinel site. The collected Anopheles mosquitoes were reared to adults in the insectary of the Department of Biological Sciences of Olusegun AgaguUniversity of Science and Technology, Okitipupa. Two to five days old An. gambiae mosquitoes were assessed for resistance levels to Pirimiphos-methyl (0.25%), Lambdacyhalothrin (0.05%), Bendiocarb (0.1%), Permethrin (0.75%) and Propoxur (0.1%). Knockdown time (KDT) was recorded up to 60 minutes and maintained for 24hrs post-exposure on 10 % glucose solution, after which mortality was recorded. The susceptibility test showed that mosquito mortality after 24 hrs for Pirimiphos-methyl was 25%, Lambdacyhalothrin was 0%, Propoxur was 75%, Bendiocarb was 100% and Permethrin was 50%. This study revealed development of resistance to Pirimiphos-methyl, Permethrin and Lambdacyhalothrin in An. gambiae s. l. across all sentinel sites. The implication of this was discussed and suggestion for monitoring was made before this problem becomes widespread in Okitipupa town.

Pyrethroids, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Propoxur, Bendiocarb, Permethrin

APA Style

Owolabi Dorcas Olasimbo, Ayankoya Taiwo Agnes. (2023). Insecticides Susceptibility of Malaria Vectors in Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria Using WHO Susceptibility Test. Journal of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry, 9(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jddmc.20230901.11

ACS Style

Owolabi Dorcas Olasimbo; Ayankoya Taiwo Agnes. Insecticides Susceptibility of Malaria Vectors in Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria Using WHO Susceptibility Test. J. Drug Des. Med. Chem. 2023, 9(1), 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.jddmc.20230901.11

AMA Style

Owolabi Dorcas Olasimbo, Ayankoya Taiwo Agnes. Insecticides Susceptibility of Malaria Vectors in Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria Using WHO Susceptibility Test. J Drug Des Med Chem. 2023;9(1):1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.jddmc.20230901.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Aïzoun, N., Aïkpon, R., Padonou, G. G., Oussou, O., Oké-Agbo, F., Gnanguenon, V., Ossè, R., Akogbéto, M. (2013) Mixed-function oxidases and esterases associated with permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb resistance in Anopheles gambiae s. l. in the south-north transect Benin, West Africa. Parasit. Vectors; 6: 223.
2. Beier, J. C. (2008). Integrated vector management for malaria control. Malar. J. 7 (Suppl 1), S4.
3. Corbel, V., Guessan, N. R. (2013). Distribution, Mechanisms, Impact and Management of Insecticide Resistance in Malaria Vectors: A Pragmatic Review, Anopheles mosquitoes - New insights into malaria vectors. In: Manguin S, editor. ISBN: 978-953-51-1188-7.
4. Djègbé, I., Boussari, O., Sidick, A., Martin, T., Ranson, H., Chandre, F., Akogbéto, M., Corbel, V. (2011). Dynamics of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Benin: first evidence of the presence of L1014S kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae from West Africa. Malar. J; 10:
5. Hemingway, J. (2014). The role of vector control in stopping the transmission of malaria: threats and opportunities. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci; 369, 20130431.
6. Hinzoumbe, C. K., Peka, M., Nwane, P., Donan-Gauni, I., Etang, J., Ekobo, A. S. and Simard, F. (2008). Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south- western Chad, Central Africa. Malaria Journal: 7-9.
7. Killeen, G. F., Fillinger, U. and Knols, B. G. (2002). Advantages of larval control for African malaria vectors: Low mobility and behavioural responsiveness of immature mosquito stages allow high effective coverage. Malar. J; 1, 8.
8. Knox, T. B., Juma, E. O., Ochomo, E. O., Pates-Jamet, H., Ndungo, L., Chege, P. (2014). An online tool for mapping insecticide resistance in major Anopheles vectors of human malaria parasites and review of resistance status for the Afrotropical region. Parasit Vectors; 7: 76.
9. Manokore, V., Murahwa, F., Chirebvu, E. (2000). Absence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Diptera: Culicidae) after four decades of residual house spraying in Gokwe District, Zimbabwe. J Med Entomol; 37: 286–8.
10. Maxwell, A. A., Kwabena, M. B., Samuel D., Uri, S. M., Isacc, A., Elizabeth, D., Daniel, E. S., William O. R., Kwadwo, K., David, J. F. (2003). Detection of malaria sporozoites by standard ELISA and Vec-Test TM Dip – Stick assay in field – collected A n o p h e li n e mosquitoes from a malaria endemic site in Ghana. Tropical and International Health; 8 (II): 1012 – 1017.
11. Munhenga G, Masendu HT, Brooke BD, Hunt RH, Koekemoer LK. (2008). Pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis from Gwave, a malaria-endemic area in Zimbabwe. Malar J; 7: 247.
12. N’Guessan, R., V. Corbel, M. Akogbeto, and M. Rowland. (2007). Reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria control in pyrethroid resistance area, Benin. Emerg Infect Dis; 13: 199-206.
13. Nyarango, P. M. et al. (2006). A steep decline of malaria morbidity and mortality trends in Eritrea between 2000 and 2004: the effect of combination of control methods. Malar. J; 5, 33.
14. Ranson H, N’Guessan R, Lines J, Moiroux N, Nkuni Z, Corbel V. (2011). Pyrethroid resistance in African anopheline mosquitoes: what are the implications for malaria control? Trends Parasitol; 27: 91–8.
15. Service, M. W. (ed.). (2004). Medical entomology for Students. Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.
16. WHO (1998): Techniques to detect insecticide resistance mechanism, field and laboratory manual. WHO Communicable disease (CDS); 12.5: 112-115.
17. WHO. (2006): Pesticides and their application for the control of vectors and pests of public health importance, 6th ed. Geneva, World Health Organization.
18. WHO (2011): WHO Malaria Report. In: Data WLC-i-P, editor. WHO Global Malaria Programme. Geneva: 259.
19. WHO (2012): Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in Malaria Vectors (GPIRM). In: WHO/HTM/GMP/20125. Geneva, Switzerland: Organization.
20. WHO (2013): Larval Source Managenent - a supplementary measure for malaria vector control.
21. Zaim M, Aitio A, Nakashima N. (2000). Safety of pyrethroid treated mosquito nets. Med Vet Entomol; 14: 1-5.
22. Coetzee M, Craig M, le Sueur D. (2000) Distribution of African malaria mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex. Parasitol Today Feb; 16 (2): 74-7. doi: 10.1016/s0169-4758(99)01563-x.
23. Kumar, R.; Kamra, D. N.; Neeta Agarwal; Chaudhary, L. C., (2007). In vitro methanogenesis and fermentation of feeds containing oil seed cakes with rumen liquor of buffalo. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 20 (8): 1196-1200.
24. Kofi Effect of anti-malarial interventions on trends of malaria cases, hospital admissions and deaths, 2002015, Ghana.