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Global Importance of Coffee Leaf Rust /Hemileia vastatrix/ on Coffee Industry and Its Management Options

Received: Jun. 30, 2022    Accepted: Aug. 02, 2022    Published: Sep. 16, 2022
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Abstract

In Global coffee industry, coffee leaf rust, a fungal disease caused by Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br., was first recorded in 1861 near Lake Vitoria (East Africa) on wild Coffea species. It is thought to have originated at wild Arabica coffee in its center of diversity at south-western part of Ethiopia. Its damage was first observed in cultivated coffee in Sri Lanka (Cylon) in 1868 and reported from India in 1869. Today, the disease is highly devastating at all coffee arabica and Coffea canephora coffee-growing countries, and continues to threaten coffee production with losses that range from 30 to 50%. Global crop loss due to this disease is estimated $1-2 Billion. Disease risk is increased in arabica coffee compared to canifora, and lower production is expected in the year following an epidemic due to early defoliation and drying of branches. Its control is still very difficult; however, several varieties were developed in the country using sources of resistance from germplasm collections in Portugal. However, very few are completely resistant, instead exhibiting various levels of partial resistance. The disease is currently damaging and its epidemics total change the livelihood of millions in Latin America and Africa. The review indicated that coffee leaf rust is the most devastating coffee disease in the World. Different coffee leaf rust disease management opthions are helpful to reduce it damage. Among these, use of resistant variety, cultural control, use of effective chemicals, biological control and integrated disease management options. From cultural management options, the use of organic soil fertility management was the most attractive option for resource poor small holder coffee farmers under without supplementary irrigation condition given that it reduces on both costs of inorganic chemical fertilizers and support the tolerance of coffee plant for disease and help in high yield.

DOI 10.11648/j.rd.20220303.14
Published in Research & Development ( Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2022 )
Page(s) 159-167
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Coffee, Coffee Leaf Rust, Epidemiology, Hemileia Vastatrix, Importance

References
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[17] Capucho, A. S., Zambolim, L., Cabral P. G. C., Maciel-Zambolim E. and Caixeta E. T. 2013. Climate favorability to leaf rust in Conilon coffee. Austral Plant Pathol, 24: 511–514.
[18] Chaves MG, da Cruz Filho J, Carvalho MG, Matsuoka K, Coelho DT, Shimoy CA (1970) Ferrugem do cafeeiro (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br). Revisão de literatura com observações e comentários sobre a enfermidade no Brasil. Seiva 30: 1–75.
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[23] Garedew, W., Lamesa, F. and Fabrice, P. 2019. Landscape context and plot features influence the epidemics of coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) in southwest Ethiopia. Archives of Phyto-pathology and Plant Protection, 52: 71-89.
[24] Avelino, J., Cristancho, M., Georgiou, S., Imbach, P., Aguilar, L., Bornemann, G., Läderach, P., Anzueto, F., Hruska, A. J. and Morales, C. 2015. The coffee rust crises in Colombia and Central America (2008–2013): impacts, plausible causes and proposed solutions. Food Security, 7: 303-321 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0446-9
[25] Kifle Belachew, Girma Adugna, Weyessa Garedew, Robrt Bareto and Emerson DelPont. 2020. Altitude is the main driver of coffee leaf rust epidemics: a large-scale survey in Ethiopia. Tropical Plant Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40858-020-00383-4
[26] Belachew, K., Teferi, D. and Gidisa, G. 2015. Screening of some Coffee Arabica genotypes against coffee wilt diseases (Gibberellaxylarioides Heim and Saccas) at Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 2: 66-76.
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    Kifle Belachew Bekele. (2022). Global Importance of Coffee Leaf Rust /Hemileia vastatrix/ on Coffee Industry and Its Management Options. Research & Development, 3(3), 159-167. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.rd.20220303.14

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    Kifle Belachew Bekele. Global Importance of Coffee Leaf Rust /Hemileia vastatrix/ on Coffee Industry and Its Management Options. Res. Dev. 2022, 3(3), 159-167. doi: 10.11648/j.rd.20220303.14

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    AMA Style

    Kifle Belachew Bekele. Global Importance of Coffee Leaf Rust /Hemileia vastatrix/ on Coffee Industry and Its Management Options. Res Dev. 2022;3(3):159-167. doi: 10.11648/j.rd.20220303.14

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  • @article{10.11648/j.rd.20220303.14,
      author = {Kifle Belachew Bekele},
      title = {Global Importance of Coffee Leaf Rust /Hemileia vastatrix/ on Coffee Industry and Its Management Options},
      journal = {Research & Development},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {159-167},
      doi = {10.11648/j.rd.20220303.14},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.rd.20220303.14},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.rd.20220303.14},
      abstract = {In Global coffee industry, coffee leaf rust, a fungal disease caused by Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br., was first recorded in 1861 near Lake Vitoria (East Africa) on wild Coffea species. It is thought to have originated at wild Arabica coffee in its center of diversity at south-western part of Ethiopia. Its damage was first observed in cultivated coffee in Sri Lanka (Cylon) in 1868 and reported from India in 1869. Today, the disease is highly devastating at all coffee arabica and Coffea canephora coffee-growing countries, and continues to threaten coffee production with losses that range from 30 to 50%. Global crop loss due to this disease is estimated $1-2 Billion. Disease risk is increased in arabica coffee compared to canifora, and lower production is expected in the year following an epidemic due to early defoliation and drying of branches. Its control is still very difficult; however, several varieties were developed in the country using sources of resistance from germplasm collections in Portugal. However, very few are completely resistant, instead exhibiting various levels of partial resistance. The disease is currently damaging and its epidemics total change the livelihood of millions in Latin America and Africa. The review indicated that coffee leaf rust is the most devastating coffee disease in the World. Different coffee leaf rust disease management opthions are helpful to reduce it damage. Among these, use of resistant variety, cultural control, use of effective chemicals, biological control and integrated disease management options. From cultural management options, the use of organic soil fertility management was the most attractive option for resource poor small holder coffee farmers under without supplementary irrigation condition given that it reduces on both costs of inorganic chemical fertilizers and support the tolerance of coffee plant for disease and help in high yield.},
     year = {2022}
    }
    

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    AB  - In Global coffee industry, coffee leaf rust, a fungal disease caused by Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br., was first recorded in 1861 near Lake Vitoria (East Africa) on wild Coffea species. It is thought to have originated at wild Arabica coffee in its center of diversity at south-western part of Ethiopia. Its damage was first observed in cultivated coffee in Sri Lanka (Cylon) in 1868 and reported from India in 1869. Today, the disease is highly devastating at all coffee arabica and Coffea canephora coffee-growing countries, and continues to threaten coffee production with losses that range from 30 to 50%. Global crop loss due to this disease is estimated $1-2 Billion. Disease risk is increased in arabica coffee compared to canifora, and lower production is expected in the year following an epidemic due to early defoliation and drying of branches. Its control is still very difficult; however, several varieties were developed in the country using sources of resistance from germplasm collections in Portugal. However, very few are completely resistant, instead exhibiting various levels of partial resistance. The disease is currently damaging and its epidemics total change the livelihood of millions in Latin America and Africa. The review indicated that coffee leaf rust is the most devastating coffee disease in the World. Different coffee leaf rust disease management opthions are helpful to reduce it damage. Among these, use of resistant variety, cultural control, use of effective chemicals, biological control and integrated disease management options. From cultural management options, the use of organic soil fertility management was the most attractive option for resource poor small holder coffee farmers under without supplementary irrigation condition given that it reduces on both costs of inorganic chemical fertilizers and support the tolerance of coffee plant for disease and help in high yield.
    VL  - 3
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Author Information
  • Plant Protection Department, Jimma Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Jimma, Ethiopia

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