International Journal of Medical Case Reports

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Climate Change Impacts on Malaria Incidence: A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in Luapula and Southern Zambia

Received: 31 January 2024    Accepted: 12 February 2024    Published: 29 February 2024
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Abstract

This study examines the impact of climate change on the incidence of malaria in Zambia. The study focused on variations in prevalence influenced by climatic and environmental factors. This study adopted a retrospective comparative analytical approach, utilizing 157 case records from each province. The survey investigated temperature, seasonal variations, and land use activities. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between malaria incidence and climate change. The findings revealed a high fluctuating trend of rainfall from 2010 to 2020, with an average annual rainfall of 1058.0 mm. The highest total rainfall was observed in 2017 (1434.4 mm), indicating a strong association between malaria incidence rates and rainfall, as supported by a significant p-value of 0.041. Additionally, an assessment of the annual percentage of drought area for each province showed that in 2019, Southern Province had the highest percentage of drought at 64% over the ten-year period. This resulted in a poor vegetation health index, creating unfavorable environmental conditions for mosquito larvae and leading to reduced malaria transmission in the southern region. Importantly, demographic data revealed distinct population distributions between provinces, with a significant urban-rural divide. The majority of the population in both provinces resided in rural areas, with 797,407 in Luapula Province and 1,197,751 in Southern Province. Despite southern province having a higher population distribution in rural areas, Luapula Province exhibited a higher number of malaria transmission cases over the ten-year period. These results emphasize the crucial role of climate change and local environmental factors in the dynamics of malaria transmission, highlighting the need for malaria control strategies tailored to specific regions in Zambia.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijmcr.20240301.12
Published in International Journal of Medical Case Reports (Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2024)
Page(s) 5-12
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Climate Change, Malaria Incidence, Climatic Factors, Environmental Factors, Comparative Analytical Approach, Temperature, Seasonal Variations, Land Use Activities, Malaria Transmission

References
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  • APA Style

    Phiri, J. K., Likwa, R. N. (2024). Climate Change Impacts on Malaria Incidence: A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in Luapula and Southern Zambia. International Journal of Medical Case Reports, 3(1), 5-12. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijmcr.20240301.12

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    ACS Style

    Phiri, J. K.; Likwa, R. N. Climate Change Impacts on Malaria Incidence: A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in Luapula and Southern Zambia. Int. J. Med. Case Rep. 2024, 3(1), 5-12. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmcr.20240301.12

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    AMA Style

    Phiri JK, Likwa RN. Climate Change Impacts on Malaria Incidence: A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in Luapula and Southern Zambia. Int J Med Case Rep. 2024;3(1):5-12. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmcr.20240301.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijmcr.20240301.12,
      author = {Joshua Kanjanga Phiri and Rosemary Ndonyo Likwa},
      title = {Climate Change Impacts on Malaria Incidence: A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in Luapula and Southern Zambia},
      journal = {International Journal of Medical Case Reports},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-12},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijmcr.20240301.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijmcr.20240301.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijmcr.20240301.12},
      abstract = {This study examines the impact of climate change on the incidence of malaria in Zambia. The study focused on variations in prevalence influenced by climatic and environmental factors. This study adopted a retrospective comparative analytical approach, utilizing 157 case records from each province. The survey investigated temperature, seasonal variations, and land use activities. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between malaria incidence and climate change. The findings revealed a high fluctuating trend of rainfall from 2010 to 2020, with an average annual rainfall of 1058.0 mm. The highest total rainfall was observed in 2017 (1434.4 mm), indicating a strong association between malaria incidence rates and rainfall, as supported by a significant p-value of 0.041. Additionally, an assessment of the annual percentage of drought area for each province showed that in 2019, Southern Province had the highest percentage of drought at 64% over the ten-year period. This resulted in a poor vegetation health index, creating unfavorable environmental conditions for mosquito larvae and leading to reduced malaria transmission in the southern region. Importantly, demographic data revealed distinct population distributions between provinces, with a significant urban-rural divide. The majority of the population in both provinces resided in rural areas, with 797,407 in Luapula Province and 1,197,751 in Southern Province. Despite southern province having a higher population distribution in rural areas, Luapula Province exhibited a higher number of malaria transmission cases over the ten-year period. These results emphasize the crucial role of climate change and local environmental factors in the dynamics of malaria transmission, highlighting the need for malaria control strategies tailored to specific regions in Zambia.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
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    AB  - This study examines the impact of climate change on the incidence of malaria in Zambia. The study focused on variations in prevalence influenced by climatic and environmental factors. This study adopted a retrospective comparative analytical approach, utilizing 157 case records from each province. The survey investigated temperature, seasonal variations, and land use activities. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between malaria incidence and climate change. The findings revealed a high fluctuating trend of rainfall from 2010 to 2020, with an average annual rainfall of 1058.0 mm. The highest total rainfall was observed in 2017 (1434.4 mm), indicating a strong association between malaria incidence rates and rainfall, as supported by a significant p-value of 0.041. Additionally, an assessment of the annual percentage of drought area for each province showed that in 2019, Southern Province had the highest percentage of drought at 64% over the ten-year period. This resulted in a poor vegetation health index, creating unfavorable environmental conditions for mosquito larvae and leading to reduced malaria transmission in the southern region. Importantly, demographic data revealed distinct population distributions between provinces, with a significant urban-rural divide. The majority of the population in both provinces resided in rural areas, with 797,407 in Luapula Province and 1,197,751 in Southern Province. Despite southern province having a higher population distribution in rural areas, Luapula Province exhibited a higher number of malaria transmission cases over the ten-year period. These results emphasize the crucial role of climate change and local environmental factors in the dynamics of malaria transmission, highlighting the need for malaria control strategies tailored to specific regions in Zambia.
    
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Author Information
  • Department of Population Studies and Global Health, School of Public Health, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

  • Department of Population Studies and Global Health, School of Public Health, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

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