American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

| Peer-Reviewed |

In vivo Antiplasmodial Studies on Trichilia heudelotii Planch ex. Oliver (Meliaceae) Leaf

Received: May 18, 2023    Accepted: Jul. 03, 2023    Published: Sep. 27, 2023
Views:       Downloads:

Share

Abstract

The study evaluated the antimalarial activities of the methanolic extract of Trichilia heudelotii leaf in mice, identified the most active partitioned and chromatographic fractions with a view to providing information on the scientific basis of the ethnomedicinal uses of the plant in treatment of malaria. The air-dried leaf of T. heudelotii was milled into powder and extracted with methanol. The median lethal dose (LD50) was determined according to Lorke’s method. The extract was tested against chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium bergheii bergheii NK-65 at doses of 100–800 mg/kg using the chemosuppressive antimalarial model while distilled water (0.2 mL) and chloroquine (10 mg/kg) were used as the negative and positive controls, respectively. The methanol extract was successively partitioned to obtain n-hexane (THH), dichloromethane (THD), ethylacetate (THE), n-butanol (THB) and aqueous fractions (THA) which were each tested at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg similarly. The most active THH was successively chromatographed and the most active fractions THH2B and THH3B identified. The percentage chemosuppression and percentage survivor in mice was used as a measure of the antiplasmodial activities of the extract, partitioned and column fractions. The LD50 of T. heudelotii leaf extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. It gave the highest chemosuppression of 88.7% at 200mg/kg, the n-hexane partitioned fraction (THH) gave percentage chemosuppression of 66% at 50mg/kg while subsequent column fractions, THH2B and THH3B gave 77 and 74% respectively. The chemosuppressive activities of T. heudelotii leaf was obviously retained during subsequent purification with the fractions demonstrating good% chemosuppression and percentage survivor profile as to contain the antimalarial constituents of the plant. Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy of THH3B, the most active column fraction suggested 6, 10, 14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, methyl palmitate and 11-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester that were the major compounds identified in the fraction as possible antimalarial compounds in the plant.

DOI 10.11648/j.bio.20231105.12
Published in American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering ( Volume 11, Issue 5, October 2023 )
Page(s) 66-74
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

T. heudelotii, Plasmodium bergheii bergheii NK-65, Meliaceae, Chemosuppressive, Antimalarial

References
[1] Elujoba AA., AIDS-related illnesses and traditional medicine treatment strategy: Opportunistic fevers and malarial infection. In Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa, in Sofowora, A. 2008: 389.
[2] World Health Organization. WHO, World Malaria Report. www.who.int, 2015.
[3] Carballeira. 2008. New Advances in Fatty Acids as Antimalarial, Antimycobacterial and Antifungal Agents, Progress in Lipid Research, 47: 50–61.
[4] Achan J, Talisuna AO, Erhart A, Yeka A, Tibenderana, JK, Baliraine FN, et al. 2011. Quinine, an old anti-malarial drug in a modern world: role in the treatment of malaria. Malaria Journal. 10: 144.
[5] Ajaiyeoba E, Osowole OS, Oduola OO, Ashidi JS, Akinboye DO. et al, 2002. Nigerian Antimalarial Ethnomedicine 2: Ethnobotanical Surveys of Herbal remedies used in the treatment of febrile illnesses in the Middle Belt of Nigeria. Journal of Phytomedicine and Therapeutics. 7: 26-39.
[6] Ajaiyeoba, E., Fawole, O. I., Bolaji, O. M., Akinboye, D. O. Osowole, O. S, et al. 2003. Cultural Characterisation of febrile illness in correlation with herbal remedies used for treatment in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 85: 179-185.
[7] Osowole O., Osowole O, Ajaiyeoba E, Bolaji O, Akinboye D, Fawole O, Gbotosho CG, et al. 2005. A Survey of Treatment Practices For Febrile Illnesses Among Traditional Healers In The Nigerian Middle Belt Zone’ African Journal of Traditional and Complementary/Alternative Medicine. 2: 337–344.
[8] Afzal A, Oriqat G, Khan MA, Jose J, Afzal M. 2013. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Terpenoids from Curcuma and Related Species, Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature. 3: 1-55.
[9] Moody JO. 2010. The sense and Nonsense of Traditional Medicine in Africa: The Odyssey of a herbalists Grandson in Nature’s laboratory. Inaugural Lecture, University of Ibadan, Ibadan University Press 2010: 5-38.
[10] Agbor MA, Naidoo S, 2015 Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015:
[11] Ajaiyeoba 2012. Natural Remedies and Medicine: evolution: Evolution and Revolution. Inaugural Lecture, University of Ibadan, Ibadan University Press p 4-35.
[12] Abbiw DK. 1990. Useful Plants of Ghana. Intermediate Technology Publication and the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, 1990: 157.
[13] Irvine FR. 1961. Woody plants of Ghana. Oxford University Press, London, 1961: 528.
[14] Adeniyi CBA, Moody JO, Adagbasa OO, Ayelaagbe OO, Idowu PA, et al. 2008. Antimicrobial activities of Trichilia heudelotii (Meliaceae) Planch, a Nigerian Medicinal Plant. Planta Medica 2008: 74-78.
[15] Aladesanmi, AJ, Iwalewa EO, Akinkunmi EO, Adebajo AC, Taiwo BJ. et al, 2007. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plants. African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Alternative Medicine. 2007: 4 (2): 173–184.
[16] Aladesanmi, AJ, Odediran, SA. 2000. Antimicrobial Activities of Trichilia heudelotti leaves. Fitoterapia. 71: 179-182.
[17] Olorunniyi OF. 2013. In vivo antimalarial activity of crude aqueous bark extract of Trichilia monadelpha against Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65) in mice. International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy, Medicine and Bio allied Sciences 2: 2278-5221.
[18] Batista R, Junior AJS, Oliveira AB. 2009. Plant-derived Antimalarial Agents: New leads and Efficient Phytomedicines. Part II. Non-alkaloidal Natural Products. Molecules. 14: 3037-3072.
[19] Fadare DA, Abiodun, OO, Ajaiyeoba EO. 2013. In-vivo antimalarial activities of Trichilia megalantha harms extracts and fractions in animal models. Parasitology Research 112: 2991-2995.
[20] Nana O, Momeni R, Nzague-Tepongning MBR. Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Antiplasmodial activities of extracts from Trichilia roka and Sapium ellipticum. The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2: 22-29.
[21] Cortez DA, Fernandes JB, Vieira PC, da Silva MF, Ferreira AG. 2000. A limonoid from Trichilia estipulata, Phytochemistry, 55: 711-713.
[22] Ramirez M, Toscano R, Arnason J, Omar S, Cerda-Garcia-Rojas C, Mata R, 2000. Structure, conformation and absolute configuration of new antifeedant dolabellanes from Trichilia trifolia. Tetrahedron. 56: 5085–5091.
[23] Pupo MT, Adorno MAT, Vieira PC, Fernandes JB, da Silva MFGF, Pirani JR. 2002. Terpenoids and steroids from Trichilia species. Journal of Brazillian Chemical Society. 13: 382–388.
[24] Okorie DA, Taylor AH. 1968. Limonoids from the timber of Trichilia heudelotii Planch ex Oliv. Journal of Chemical Society, 14: 1828-1831.
[25] Okorie DA, Taylor AH. 1972. Limonoids from Trichilia heudelotii. Journal of Chemical Society Perkin Transactions 1(12): 1488-1490.
[26] Burkhill HM. 1997. The useful plants of Tropical West Africa. (2nd Edition). Families M-R. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. 4: 969.
[27] Odugbemi, T. 2008. A textbook of medicinal plants from Nigeria. University of Lagos Press, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. 2008: 809.
[28] Adebayo JO, and Krettli AU, 2011. Potential Antimalarials from Nigerian Medicinal plants, A Review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133(2): 289-302.
[29] Lorke, D. 1983. A new approach to Practical acute toxicity testing. Archives Toxicology. 54: 275-287.
[30] Peters, W. 1965. Drug Resistance in Plasmodium berghei Venke and Lips (1948). I Chloroquine Resistance. Experimental Parasitology 17: 80-89.
[31] Veeresham C. 2012. Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology Research. 3: 200–201.
[32] Sofowora A, Ogunbodede E, Onayade A. 2013. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines (AJTCAM). 10: 210-29.
[33] Garner RJ, Clarke EGC, Clarke, ML. 1977. Lander’s veterinary toxicity. London: Harcourt Publishers. 1977: 1-49.
[34] Toma A, Deyno S, Fikru A, Eyado A, Andrew BA. 2015. In vivo Antiplasmodial and Toxicological Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Echinops kebericho Traditionally used in Treatment of Malaria in Ethiopia. Malaria Journal 14: 196.
[35] Bankole AE, Adekunle AA, Sowemimo AA, Umebese CE, Abiodun O. et al. 2016. Phytochemical Screening and in vivo Antimalarial Activity of Extracts from Three Medicinal Plants used in Malaria Treatment in Nigeria. Parasitology Research. 2016: 115(1): 299 -305.
[36] Adesida AS, Odediran SA, Elujoba AA. 2021. Investigation on the Antimalarial Properties of Plumeria alba Linn (Apocynaceae) Cultivated in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Natural products and Medicine. 25: 34-42.
[37] Olorunnisola OS, Afolayan AJ. 2011. In vivo anti-malaria activity of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre, African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5: 1669-1673.
[38] Grassby P. 2007. Drug dose calculations 2. Individualized dosages. 34: 27-28+30.
[39] Aladesanmi JA, Odiba E O, Odediran, AS, Oriola, OA. 2022. Antiplasmodial activities of the stem bark extract of Artocarpus altilis Forsberg, African Journal of Infectious Diseases 16 (2S): 33-45.
[40] Shoge M, Amusan T. 2020. Phytochemical, Antidiarrhoeal activity, Isolation and Characterisation of 11-Octadecenoic Acid, Methyl ester Isolated from the seeds of Acacia nilotica Linn. Journal of Biotechnology and Immunology, 2(1): p. 1-12.
[41] Duke, James. 2024. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
[42] Avoseh ON, Mtunzi FM, Ogunwande IA, Ascrizzi R, Guido F. 2021. Albizia lebbeck and Albizia zygia volatile oils exhibit anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties in pain models. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 268: 113676.
[43] Saheed, N, El-Demerdash, E, Abdel-Rahman, H, Algandaby, M, Al-Abbasi, F, Abdel-Naim, A, Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 264: 84-93.
[44] Rodríguez-Rivera A, Galicia-Moreno M, Reyes-Gordillo K, Segovia J, Vergara P, Moreno MG, et al. 2008. Methyl palmitate prevents CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 28(8): 1021-6.
[45] Hamed A, Mantawy E, El-Bakly W, Abdel-Mottaleb Y, Azab, S. Methyl Palmitate: the Naturally Occurring Cardioprotective Agent. Archives of Pharmaceutical Sciences Ain Shams University. 4: 47-62.
[46] Kumaratilake LM, Robinson BS, Ferrante A, Poulos A. 1992. Antimalarial properties of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: In vitro effects on Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo effects on P. berghei. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 89: 961–967.
[47] Krugliak M, Deharo E, Shalmiev G, Sauvain M, Moretti C, Ginsburg H. 1995. Antimalarial effects of C18 fatty acids on Plasmodium falciparum in culture and on Plasmodium vinckei petteri and Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in vivo. Experimental Parasitology 81: 97–105.
[48] Suksamrarn A, Buaprom M, Udtip S, Nuntawong N, Haritakun R, Kanokmedhakul S. 2005. Antimycobacterial and antiplasmodial unsaturated carboxylic acid from the twigs of Scleropyrum wallichianum. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 53: 1327–1329.
[49] Banzouzi, JT. Njomnang P, Soh, Ramos S, Toto P, Cavé, A, Hemez, J, et al. 2020. Samvisterin, a new natural antiplasmodial betulin derivative from Uapaca paludosa (Euphorbiaceae), Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 173: 100-104.
[50] Johnson TO, Istifanus G, Kutshik RJ. 2020. In vitro and in vivo analysis of the anti-plasmodial activity of ethanol extract of Phyllanthus nivosus W. Bull leaf. Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 44: 166-173.
Cite This Article
  • APA Style

    Sulaiman Muhammed Olatunji, Odediran Samuel Akintunde, Aladesanmi Joseph Adetunji. (2023). In vivo Antiplasmodial Studies on Trichilia heudelotii Planch ex. Oliver (Meliaceae) Leaf. American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 11(5), 66-74. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.bio.20231105.12

    Copy | Download

    ACS Style

    Sulaiman Muhammed Olatunji; Odediran Samuel Akintunde; Aladesanmi Joseph Adetunji. In vivo Antiplasmodial Studies on Trichilia heudelotii Planch ex. Oliver (Meliaceae) Leaf. Am. J. BioSci. Bioeng. 2023, 11(5), 66-74. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20231105.12

    Copy | Download

    AMA Style

    Sulaiman Muhammed Olatunji, Odediran Samuel Akintunde, Aladesanmi Joseph Adetunji. In vivo Antiplasmodial Studies on Trichilia heudelotii Planch ex. Oliver (Meliaceae) Leaf. Am J BioSci Bioeng. 2023;11(5):66-74. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20231105.12

    Copy | Download

  • @article{10.11648/j.bio.20231105.12,
      author = {Sulaiman Muhammed Olatunji and Odediran Samuel Akintunde and Aladesanmi Joseph Adetunji},
      title = {In vivo Antiplasmodial Studies on Trichilia heudelotii Planch ex. Oliver (Meliaceae) Leaf},
      journal = {American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering},
      volume = {11},
      number = {5},
      pages = {66-74},
      doi = {10.11648/j.bio.20231105.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.bio.20231105.12},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.bio.20231105.12},
      abstract = {The study evaluated the antimalarial activities of the methanolic extract of Trichilia heudelotii leaf in mice, identified the most active partitioned and chromatographic fractions with a view to providing information on the scientific basis of the ethnomedicinal uses of the plant in treatment of malaria. The air-dried leaf of T. heudelotii was milled into powder and extracted with methanol. The median lethal dose (LD50) was determined according to Lorke’s method. The extract was tested against chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium bergheii bergheii NK-65 at doses of 100–800 mg/kg using the chemosuppressive antimalarial model while distilled water (0.2 mL) and chloroquine (10 mg/kg) were used as the negative and positive controls, respectively. The methanol extract was successively partitioned to obtain n-hexane (THH), dichloromethane (THD), ethylacetate (THE), n-butanol (THB) and aqueous fractions (THA) which were each tested at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg similarly. The most active THH was successively chromatographed and the most active fractions THH2B and THH3B identified. The percentage chemosuppression and percentage survivor in mice was used as a measure of the antiplasmodial activities of the extract, partitioned and column fractions. The LD50 of T. heudelotii leaf extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. It gave the highest chemosuppression of 88.7% at 200mg/kg, the n-hexane partitioned fraction (THH) gave percentage chemosuppression of 66% at 50mg/kg while subsequent column fractions, THH2B and THH3B gave 77 and 74% respectively. The chemosuppressive activities of T. heudelotii leaf was obviously retained during subsequent purification with the fractions demonstrating good% chemosuppression and percentage survivor profile as to contain the antimalarial constituents of the plant. Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy of THH3B, the most active column fraction suggested 6, 10, 14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, methyl palmitate and 11-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester that were the major compounds identified in the fraction as possible antimalarial compounds in the plant.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

    Copy | Download

  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - In vivo Antiplasmodial Studies on Trichilia heudelotii Planch ex. Oliver (Meliaceae) Leaf
    AU  - Sulaiman Muhammed Olatunji
    AU  - Odediran Samuel Akintunde
    AU  - Aladesanmi Joseph Adetunji
    Y1  - 2023/09/27
    PY  - 2023
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.bio.20231105.12
    DO  - 10.11648/j.bio.20231105.12
    T2  - American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
    JF  - American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
    JO  - American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
    SP  - 66
    EP  - 74
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2328-5893
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.bio.20231105.12
    AB  - The study evaluated the antimalarial activities of the methanolic extract of Trichilia heudelotii leaf in mice, identified the most active partitioned and chromatographic fractions with a view to providing information on the scientific basis of the ethnomedicinal uses of the plant in treatment of malaria. The air-dried leaf of T. heudelotii was milled into powder and extracted with methanol. The median lethal dose (LD50) was determined according to Lorke’s method. The extract was tested against chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium bergheii bergheii NK-65 at doses of 100–800 mg/kg using the chemosuppressive antimalarial model while distilled water (0.2 mL) and chloroquine (10 mg/kg) were used as the negative and positive controls, respectively. The methanol extract was successively partitioned to obtain n-hexane (THH), dichloromethane (THD), ethylacetate (THE), n-butanol (THB) and aqueous fractions (THA) which were each tested at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg similarly. The most active THH was successively chromatographed and the most active fractions THH2B and THH3B identified. The percentage chemosuppression and percentage survivor in mice was used as a measure of the antiplasmodial activities of the extract, partitioned and column fractions. The LD50 of T. heudelotii leaf extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. It gave the highest chemosuppression of 88.7% at 200mg/kg, the n-hexane partitioned fraction (THH) gave percentage chemosuppression of 66% at 50mg/kg while subsequent column fractions, THH2B and THH3B gave 77 and 74% respectively. The chemosuppressive activities of T. heudelotii leaf was obviously retained during subsequent purification with the fractions demonstrating good% chemosuppression and percentage survivor profile as to contain the antimalarial constituents of the plant. Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy of THH3B, the most active column fraction suggested 6, 10, 14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, methyl palmitate and 11-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester that were the major compounds identified in the fraction as possible antimalarial compounds in the plant.
    VL  - 11
    IS  - 5
    ER  - 

    Copy | Download

Author Information
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

  • Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

  • Section