American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering

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Documentation of Major Poisonous Plants and Their Toxic Effects on Livestock: A Review

Received: Jul. 26, 2023    Accepted: Aug. 14, 2023    Published: Sep. 14, 2023
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Abstract

Plants and plant products are the main source of feed for herbivore animals throughout the world. But all plants are not safe for animals since some plants have toxic properties. Poisonous plants have particular importance in areas where extensive pastoral management is practiced. The large array of toxic chemicals produced by these toxic plants (phytotoxins) is usually referred to as secondary plant compounds that cause physiological changes in the host. They include alkaloids, glucosides, oxalate, cyanide, hypericin, amines, toxalbumins, picrotoxins, resins, and saponins, many of which are dangerous to human and animal life under particular conditions. The poison plants cause direct and indirect economic losses to the livestock industry around the world. The direct economic losses of poison plants include livestock deaths, abortions, birth defects, weight losses, a lengthened calving interval, decreased fertility, photosensitization, immune responses, and dysfunction of the organs. This leads to a significant economic loss for the livestock industry. Most poisonings occur in the early spring or during a drought period when feed is short, which causes animals to overgraze or change their grazing habits. Livestock poisoning by plants can often be traced to problems of management or range conditions rather than simply to the presence of poisonous plants. Thus, timely diagnosis of toxic plant or biotoxin poisoning is very important and heavily relies on identification of the toxins in the feed, pasture, or ingesta along with appropriate clinical and pathological findings. This review presents the current knowledge of the identified poisoned plants and their toxic effects on livestock. Research is needed to identify and document all poisoning plants that have potential risks for animal health and production and to determine the photochemistry and toxicology of plants.

DOI 10.11648/j.bio.20231104.12
Published in American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering ( Volume 11, Issue 4, August 2023 )
Page(s) 46-54
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Poisonous Plant, Toxin, Livestock, Economic Impact, Secondary Metabolic Products

References
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  • APA Style

    Tesfa Mossie, Betelihem Yirdaw. (2023). Documentation of Major Poisonous Plants and Their Toxic Effects on Livestock: A Review. American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 11(4), 46-54. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.bio.20231104.12

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    ACS Style

    Tesfa Mossie; Betelihem Yirdaw. Documentation of Major Poisonous Plants and Their Toxic Effects on Livestock: A Review. Am. J. BioSci. Bioeng. 2023, 11(4), 46-54. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20231104.12

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    AMA Style

    Tesfa Mossie, Betelihem Yirdaw. Documentation of Major Poisonous Plants and Their Toxic Effects on Livestock: A Review. Am J BioSci Bioeng. 2023;11(4):46-54. doi: 10.11648/j.bio.20231104.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.bio.20231104.12,
      author = {Tesfa Mossie and Betelihem Yirdaw},
      title = {Documentation of Major Poisonous Plants and Their Toxic Effects on Livestock: A Review},
      journal = {American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {46-54},
      doi = {10.11648/j.bio.20231104.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.bio.20231104.12},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.bio.20231104.12},
      abstract = {Plants and plant products are the main source of feed for herbivore animals throughout the world. But all plants are not safe for animals since some plants have toxic properties. Poisonous plants have particular importance in areas where extensive pastoral management is practiced. The large array of toxic chemicals produced by these toxic plants (phytotoxins) is usually referred to as secondary plant compounds that cause physiological changes in the host. They include alkaloids, glucosides, oxalate, cyanide, hypericin, amines, toxalbumins, picrotoxins, resins, and saponins, many of which are dangerous to human and animal life under particular conditions. The poison plants cause direct and indirect economic losses to the livestock industry around the world. The direct economic losses of poison plants include livestock deaths, abortions, birth defects, weight losses, a lengthened calving interval, decreased fertility, photosensitization, immune responses, and dysfunction of the organs. This leads to a significant economic loss for the livestock industry. Most poisonings occur in the early spring or during a drought period when feed is short, which causes animals to overgraze or change their grazing habits. Livestock poisoning by plants can often be traced to problems of management or range conditions rather than simply to the presence of poisonous plants. Thus, timely diagnosis of toxic plant or biotoxin poisoning is very important and heavily relies on identification of the toxins in the feed, pasture, or ingesta along with appropriate clinical and pathological findings. This review presents the current knowledge of the identified poisoned plants and their toxic effects on livestock. Research is needed to identify and document all poisoning plants that have potential risks for animal health and production and to determine the photochemistry and toxicology of plants.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Documentation of Major Poisonous Plants and Their Toxic Effects on Livestock: A Review
    AU  - Tesfa Mossie
    AU  - Betelihem Yirdaw
    Y1  - 2023/09/14
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    AB  - Plants and plant products are the main source of feed for herbivore animals throughout the world. But all plants are not safe for animals since some plants have toxic properties. Poisonous plants have particular importance in areas where extensive pastoral management is practiced. The large array of toxic chemicals produced by these toxic plants (phytotoxins) is usually referred to as secondary plant compounds that cause physiological changes in the host. They include alkaloids, glucosides, oxalate, cyanide, hypericin, amines, toxalbumins, picrotoxins, resins, and saponins, many of which are dangerous to human and animal life under particular conditions. The poison plants cause direct and indirect economic losses to the livestock industry around the world. The direct economic losses of poison plants include livestock deaths, abortions, birth defects, weight losses, a lengthened calving interval, decreased fertility, photosensitization, immune responses, and dysfunction of the organs. This leads to a significant economic loss for the livestock industry. Most poisonings occur in the early spring or during a drought period when feed is short, which causes animals to overgraze or change their grazing habits. Livestock poisoning by plants can often be traced to problems of management or range conditions rather than simply to the presence of poisonous plants. Thus, timely diagnosis of toxic plant or biotoxin poisoning is very important and heavily relies on identification of the toxins in the feed, pasture, or ingesta along with appropriate clinical and pathological findings. This review presents the current knowledge of the identified poisoned plants and their toxic effects on livestock. Research is needed to identify and document all poisoning plants that have potential risks for animal health and production and to determine the photochemistry and toxicology of plants.
    VL  - 11
    IS  - 4
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Jimma, Ethiopia

  • Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Assosa, Ethiopia

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