International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Applications

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Processing and Characterization of Maraging Steel Using LPBF Additive Manufacturing Technology

Manufacturing processes saw significant change with the advent of Additive manufacturing (AM), which enables manufacture of complex shaped components, light-weight designs with reduced manufacturing lead times. Production of components in Maraging steel using Laser Powder Bed fusion Technology (LPBF) AM technique has gained importance in recent times, especially in defence & aerospace sectors. Current work entails processing and characterization of Maraging Steel fabricated through LPBF technology. Using full factorial DoE, primary process parameters were identified as Laser Power - 200W, Scan speed - 800mm/sec, Hatch width - 80μm. A process window comprising of laser power and scan speed was identified corresponding to the region with an energy density of ~100J/mm3. Microstructural characterization of as-deposited (AD), solution treated (ST) and ST+Aged (STA) specimens using optical and SEM microscopy revealed presence of defects like lack-of-fusion, soot and spatter. Additionally, specimens were printed with modified process parameters with zig-zig scanning pattern, resulted in reduction of defects. Furthermore, micro-hardness and tensile properties have been evaluated in AD, ST and STA conditions. The tensile strength of AD is higher compared to wrought material, whereas, STA showed equivalent strength. Also, it was inferred that printing in horizontal orientation is preferable to attain higher tensile properties.

Additive Manufacturing, Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Maraging Steel, Microstructural Characterization, Porosity

APA Style

Ramesh Kumar Saride, Srinivas Vajjala, Aman Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Laxminarayana Pappula, et al. (2023). Processing and Characterization of Maraging Steel Using LPBF Additive Manufacturing Technology. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Applications, 11(4), 81-93.

ACS Style

Ramesh Kumar Saride; Srinivas Vajjala; Aman Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; Laxminarayana Pappula, et al. Processing and Characterization of Maraging Steel Using LPBF Additive Manufacturing Technology. Int. J. Mech. Eng. Appl. 2023, 11(4), 81-93. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmea.20231104.12

AMA Style

Ramesh Kumar Saride, Srinivas Vajjala, Aman Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Laxminarayana Pappula, et al. Processing and Characterization of Maraging Steel Using LPBF Additive Manufacturing Technology. Int J Mech Eng Appl. 2023;11(4):81-93. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmea.20231104.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Mercedes Pérez, Diego Carou, Eva María Rubio & Roberto Teti. (2020). Current advances in additive manufacturing. 13th CIRP Conference on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering, CIRP ICME '19, Procedia CIRP 88. 439–444.
2. Brett P Conner, Guha P Manogharan, Ashley N Martof, Lauren M Rodomsky, Caitlyn M Rodomsky, Dakesha C, Jordan & James W Limperos. (2014). Making sense of 3D printing: Creating a map of additive manufacturing products and services, Additive Manufacturing, Vol 1-4, 64-76.
3. Tao Peng& Chao Chen. (2018). Influence of Energy Density on Energy Demand and Porosity of 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology. Vol. 5, No. 1, 55-62.
4. S. L. Sing & W. Y. Yeong. (2020) Laser powder bed fusion for metal additive manufacturing: perspectives on recent developments. Virtual and Physical Prototyping. 15: 3, 359-370, doi: 10.1080/17452759.2020.1779999.
5. Mahyar Khorasani, Amir Hossein Ghasemi, Umar Shafique Awan, Sarat Singamneni, Guy Littlefair, Ehsan Farabi, Martin Leary, Ian Gibson, JithinKozhuthalaVeetil& Bernard Rolfe. (2021). On the role of process parameters on melt-pool temperature and tensile properties of stainless steel 316L produced by powder bed fusion. Journal of materials research and technology. 12. 2438-2452.
6. T. Silva, F. Silva, J. Xavier, A. Greg´orio, A. Reis, P. Rosa, P. Konopık, M. Rund& A. Jesus. (2021). Mechanical Behaviour of Maraging Steel Produced by SLM”, Procedia Structural Integrity. 34. 45–50.
7. Bai, Y., Yang, Y., Xiao, Z., & z Wang, D. (2018). Selective laser melting of maraging steel: mechanical properties development and its application in mold. Rapid Prototyping Journal. 24 (3). 623–629.
8. Mutua, J., Nakata, S., Onda, T. & Chen, Z. (2018). Optimization of selective laser melting parameters and influence of post heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of maraging steel. Materials & Design. 139. 486–497.
9. Król, M., Snopiński, P. & Czech, A. (2020). The phase transitions in selective Laser melted 18-NI (300-grade) maraging steel. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 142 (2), 1011-1018.
10. Tan Chaolin, Kesong Zhou, Min Kuang, Wenyou Ma & TongchunKuang. (2018). Microstructural characterization and properties of selective laser melted maraging steel with different build directions. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. Vol 19, No. 1, 746–758,
11. Huang, W., Zhang, W. & Chen, X. (2020). Effect of SLM Process Parameters on Relative Density of Maraging Steel (18Ni-300) Formed Parts. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 774 (1), 012027.
12. Rangasayee Kannan& Peeyush Nandwana. (2022). Texture evolution during processing and post processing of maraging steel fabricated by laser powder bed fusion., Scientific Reports. 12: 6396.
13. NikiNouri, Qing Li, James Damon, FabianMu¨hl, Gregor Graf, Stefan Dietrich & Volker Schulze. (2022). Characterization of a novel maraging steel for laser-based powder bed fusion: optimization of process parameters and post heat treatments. Journal of materials research and technology. 18, 931-942.
14. JyotiSuryawanshi, K. G. Prashanth & U. Ramamurty. (2016). Tensile, fracture, and fatigue crack growth properties of a 3D printed maraging steel through selective laser melting. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 725, 355-364.
15. Casati, R., Lemke, J. & Vedani, M. (2016). Microstructure and Fracture Behavior of 316LAustenitic Stainless Steel Produced by Selective Laser Melting. Journal of Materials Science & Technology. 32 (8), 738–744.
16. Kempen, K., Yasa, E., Thijs, L., Kruth, J.-P. & Humbeeck, J. (2011). Microstructure and mechanical properties of Selective Laser Melted 18Ni-300 steel. Physics Procedia, 12, 255–263.
17. Yakout, M., Phillips, I., Elbestawi, M. A& Fang, Q. (2021). In-situ monitoring and detection of spatter agglomeration and delamination during laser-based powder bed fusion of Invar 36. Optics & Laser Technology. 136, 106741.
18. D. Ahmadkhaniha, H. Moller, & C. Zanella. (2021). “Studying the Microstructural Effect of Selective Laser Melting and Electropolishing on the Performance of Maraging Steel. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. Volume 30 (9), 6588-6605.
19. Gao, P., Jing, G., Lan, X., Li, S., Zhou, Y., Wang, Y., Yang, H., Wei, K. & Wang, Z. (2021). Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe–Cr–Ni-Co–Mo maraging stainless steel produced by selective laser melting. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 814, 141149.
20. Aydin, İ. (2020). Investigating effects of heat treatment processes on microstructural and mechanical properties of additively manufactured 18Ni300 maragingsteel. A thesis submitted to the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University.