International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Applications

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

The Effect of Bumper Dimensions and Car Speed on Neck and Lower Back Forces

Vehicle vibrations significantly affect the health and comfort of the driver and passengers. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of vertical vehicle vibrations caused by speed bumpers on the driver's lower back and neck in terms of forces. To achieve this goal, a human biodynamic model with 11 degrees of freedom was included in a half vehicle model with 5 degrees of freedom. This composite human vehicle model was subjected to half-sinusoidal shaped bumps of different sizes (heights and widths) and with different vehicle speeds. The equations of motion of the system were solved using MATLAB (R2021a) to find the forces acting on the lower back and neck joint. In this article, besides commenting on the speed of the cars passing through the bumps, the effect of the bumps on the driver's lower back and neck was tried to be deduced in terms of forces. The results are presented visually and comparatively in graphs. At the end of the article, it was concluded that the mentioned speed bumps should be designed considering human comfort and health. In addition, in biomechanical studies examining human-vehicle-road interaction, it was emphasized that the parameter values of the human body should be determined more realistically.

Vehicle Vibration, Lower Back Pain, Neck Pain, Half Car, Human Vibration Model, Speed Bump

APA Style

Mithat Yanikoren, Muhammet Murat Hocaoglu, Bilal Usanmaz, Omer Gundogdu. (2023). The Effect of Bumper Dimensions and Car Speed on Neck and Lower Back Forces. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Applications, 11(4), 74-80.

ACS Style

Mithat Yanikoren; Muhammet Murat Hocaoglu; Bilal Usanmaz; Omer Gundogdu. The Effect of Bumper Dimensions and Car Speed on Neck and Lower Back Forces. Int. J. Mech. Eng. Appl. 2023, 11(4), 74-80. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmea.20231104.11

AMA Style

Mithat Yanikoren, Muhammet Murat Hocaoglu, Bilal Usanmaz, Omer Gundogdu. The Effect of Bumper Dimensions and Car Speed on Neck and Lower Back Forces. Int J Mech Eng Appl. 2023;11(4):74-80. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmea.20231104.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. M. J. Griffin, J. Erdreich, Handbook of Human Vibration, (1991).
2. L. Burström, T. Nilsson, J. Wahlström, Whole-body vibration and the risk of low back pain and sciatica: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 88 (2015) 403–418.
3. I. J. Tiemessen, C. T. J. Hulshof, M. H. W. Frings-Dresen, An overview of strategies to reduce whole-body vibration exposure on drivers: A systematic review, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 37 (2007) 245–256.
4. B.-O. Wikström, A. Kjellberg, U. Landström, Health effects of long-term occupational exposure to whole-body vibration: a review, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 14 (1994) 273–292.
5. W. Abbas, A. Emam, S. Badran, M. Shebl, O. Abouelatta, Optimal Seat and Suspension Design for a Half-Car with Driver Model Using Genetic Algorithm, ICA. 04 (2013) 199–205.
6. A. Anandan, A. Kandavel, Investigation and performance comparison of ride comfort on the created human vehicle road integrated model adopting genetic algorithm optimized proportional integral derivative control technique, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part K: Journal of Multi-Body Dynamics. (2020) 146441932090668.
7. Ö. Gündoğdu, Optimal seat and suspension design for a quarter car with driver model using genetic algorithms, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 37 (2007) 327–332.
8. T. P. Gunston, J. Rebelle, M. J. Griffin, A comparison of two methods of simulating seat suspension dynamic performance, Journal of Sound and Vibration. 278 (2004) 117–134.
9. C.-C. Liang, C.-F. Chiang, T.-G. Nguyen, Biodynamic responses of seated pregnant subjects exposed to vertical vibrations in driving conditions, Vehicle System Dynamics. 45 (2007) 1017–1049.
10. A. Sezgin, Y. Z. Arslan. Analysis of the vertical vibration effects on ride comfort of vehicle driver, Journal of Vibroengineering. 14 (2012) 559-571.
11. D. Singh, Ride comfort analysis of passenger body biodynamics in active quarter car model using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based super twisting sliding mode control, Journal of Vibration and Control. 25 (2019) 1866–1882.
12. D. Ben Hassen, M. Miladi, M. S. Abbes, S. C. Baslamisli, F. Chaari, M. Haddar, Road profile estimation using the dynamic responses of the full vehicle model, Applied Acoustics. 147 (2019) 87–99.
13. M. Yanikoren, S. Tezgel, B. Usanmaz, Ö. Gündoğdu, Effect of Vehicle Vibrations on the Driver Comfort: Half Car and Driver Model, Gümüşhane Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi. (2020).
14. S. Başaran, Modeling and Simulation Of Active Suspension System Using The Half Vehicle Model Approach For Speed Dump Profiles, ejons. 4 (2020).
15. M. Bovenzi, A Longitudinal Study of Low Back Pain and Daily Vibration Exposure in Professional Drivers, INDUSTRIAL HEALTH. 48 (2010) 584–595.
16. J. H. Kim, J. T. Dennerlein, P. W. Johnson, The Effect of a Multi-Axis Suspension On Whole Body Vibration Exposures And Physical Stress In The Neck And Low Back In Agricultural Tractor Applications, Applied Ergonomics. 68 (2018) 80–89.
17. U. Kirbaş, Vibration Levels Exposure to Narrow Interrupter Bump and Wide Interrupt Bumper Transitions, Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Sciences and Engineering. 22 (2022) 332–341.
18. A. Afsharfard, A. Jafari, Y. A. Rad, H. Tehrani, K. C. Kim, Modifying Vibratory Behavior of the Car Seat to Decrease the Neck Injury, J. Vib. Eng. Technol. (2022).
19. S. Kumar, Vibration in operating heavy haul trucks in overburden mining, Applied Ergonomics. 35 (2004) 509–520.
20. A. J. Scarlett, J. S. Price, R. M. Stayner, Whole-body vibration: Evaluation of emission and exposure levels arising from agricultural tractors, Journal of Terramechanics. 44 (2007) 65–73.
21. T. Arslan, M. Mahdi, Investigating Speed Hump Effects on Drivers Using Simulation Techniques, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 3 (2020) 11-16.
22. A. Gedik, E. Bilgin, A. H. Lav, R. Artan, An investigation into the effect of parabolic speed hump profiles on ride comfort and driving safety under variable vehicle speeds: A campus experience, Sustainable Cities and Society. 45 (2019) 413–421.
23. U. Kırbaş, M. Karaşahin, Comparison of Speed Control Bumps and Humps according to Whole-Body Vibration Exposure, J. Transp. Eng., Part A: Systems. 144 (2018) 04018054.
24. W. Qassem, M. O. Othman, S. Abdul-Majeed, The effects of vertical and horizontal vibrations on the human body, Medical Engineering & Physics. 16 (1994) 151–161.