International Journal of Food Engineering and Technology


Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Characterization of Physicochemical, Functional, and Pasting Properties of Made from Wheat, Grass Pea, Anchote, and Blends Flours

This study investigated the use of composite flour from wheat-anchote-grass pea flour for bread products. Composite flours were prepared from the blends of wheat-anchote and grass pea in different proportions (A) 100% control, 90:5:5% (B), 80:10:10% (C), 70:15:15% (D), 60:20:20% (E), and50:25:25% (F). The proximate composition of blended flours was moisture content (10.13-10.32%), carbohydrate (63.8-69.32%), ash (2.23-2.71%), crude fat (1.54-1.68%), crude protein (15.37-19.91%) and crude fibre (1.22-2.47%). The crude protein content of the flours was recorded wheat flour 12.34%, anchote 1.15%, grass pea 28.68%. Similarly, bulk density, water absorption capacity (WAC), and oil absorption capacity (OAC), showed significant (P < 0.05) increases as the blend ratio of wheat flour in the blends decreased, while bulk density and dispersibility flour decreased. The values for WAC, OAC, dispersibility flour and bulk density were 59.28–67.2%, 1.36-2.18 ml/g, 74-69.3% and 0.64-0.79g/ml, respectively. The color analysis showed L*, a*, b*, WI and chroma values of the wheat, anchote and grass pea flours were L* (89.6,88.89,76.51), a* (0.42,0.82,2.65), b* (9.17,15.29,11.56) WI (86.92,85.37,77.49) and, chroma (9.17,10.32,11.86), respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference among the flours. Peak viscosity (759-1529 cP), holding strength (1366-335 cP) and final viscosity (103-604 cP), setback (237.11-269cP) and pasting temperature (54.96-65.65°C) were highest at 50% anchote-grass pea flour substitution. The peak, setback, and final viscosities increased as composite flour increased, whereas pasting temperature and time increased as the anchote-grass pea flour ratio increased.

Composition, Functional Properties, Grass Pea, Anchote

APA Style

Bekele Kuma, Habtamu Admasu, Shire Leta. (2023). Characterization of Physicochemical, Functional, and Pasting Properties of Made from Wheat, Grass Pea, Anchote, and Blends Flours. International Journal of Food Engineering and Technology, 7(2), 79-87.

ACS Style

Bekele Kuma; Habtamu Admasu; Shire Leta. Characterization of Physicochemical, Functional, and Pasting Properties of Made from Wheat, Grass Pea, Anchote, and Blends Flours. Int. J. Food Eng. Technol. 2023, 7(2), 79-87. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfet.20230702.12

AMA Style

Bekele Kuma, Habtamu Admasu, Shire Leta. Characterization of Physicochemical, Functional, and Pasting Properties of Made from Wheat, Grass Pea, Anchote, and Blends Flours. Int J Food Eng Technol. 2023;7(2):79-87. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfet.20230702.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. P. J. M. Pelgrom, R. M. Boom, and M. A. I. Schutyser, “Method Development to Increase Protein Enrichment During Dry Fractionation of Starch-Rich Legumes,” Food Bioprocess Technol., vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 1495–1502, 2015, doi: 10.1007/s11947-015-1513-0.
2. S. M. Chisenga, T. S. Workneh, G. Bultosa, B. A. Alimi, and M. Siwela, “Dough rheology and loaf quality of wheat-cassava bread using different cassava varieties and wheat substitution levels,” Food Biosci., vol. 34, no. November 2018, p. 100529, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fbio.2020.100529.
3. R. Amarowicz and R. B. Pegg, “Legumes as a source of natural antioxidants,” Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., vol. 110, no. 10, pp. 865–878, 2008, doi: 10.1002/ejlt.200800114.
4. E. Shiferaw, E. Porceddu, E. Pé, and M. Ponnaiah, “Application of CAPS markers for diversity assessment in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.),” pp. 11–18, 2017, doi: 10.1515/biorc-2017-0012.
5. D. Tsegaye, W. Tadesse, and M. Bayable, “Performance of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) somaclones at Adet, northwest,” no. January, 2005.
6. Y. Maphosa, “The Role of Legumes in Human Nutrition World s largest Science, Technology & Medicine Open Access book publisher,” no. August, 2017.
7. F. Lambein and Travella, “Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): orphan crop, nutraceutical or just plain food ?,” Planta, vol. 250, no. 3, pp. 821–838, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s00425-018-03084-0.
8. N. M. Meybodi, L. Mirmoghtadaie, Z. Sheidaei, and A. M. Mortazavian, “Wheat Bread : Potential Approach to Fortify its Lysine Content Wheat Bread : Potential Approach to Fortify its Lysine Content,” no. November 2020, 2019.
9. K. Urga, H. Fufa, E. Biratu, and M. Gebretsadik, “Effects of blanching and soaking on some physical characteristics of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus),” African J. Food, Agric. Nutr. Dev., vol. 6, no. 1, 2006, doi: 10.4314/ajfand.v6i1.19174.
10. R. Tamburino et al., “Nutritional values and radical scavenging capacities of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds in Valle Agricola district, Italy,” vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 149–156, 2012.
11. B. Kebede, K. Urga, and A. Nigatu, “Effect of processing methods on the trypsin inhibitor, tannins, phytic acid and ODAP contents of grass pea seeds,” Ethiop. J. Heal. Dvelopment. EJHD, vol. 9, no. 2, 2017.
12. Meseret, S. Admassu, C. Posten, and S. Andrée, “Reduction of β -ODAP and IP6 contents in Lathyrus sativus L. seed by high hydrostatic pressure Food Research International Reduction of β -ODAP and IP 6 contents in Lathyrus sativus L. seed by high hydrostatic pressure,” Food Res. Int., vol. 120, no. November 2020, pp. 73–82, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.02.011.
13. A. Ababa, “Ethiopia: Second Country Report on the State of PGRFA Country Report on the state of PGRFA to FAO,” 2007. Accessed: Oct. 23, 2020. [Online]. Available:
14. Z. K. Akalu and S. H. Geleta, “Antinutritional Levels of Tubers of Colocasia esculenta, L. Schott (Taro) and Dioscorea alata (Yam) Cultivated in Ethiopia,” J. Nutr. Food Sci., vol. 07, no. 02, 2017, doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000585.
15. Bekele, Endashaw, and I. Collaboration, “Study on Actual Situation of Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia,” 2007.
16. CSA, “The Importance of Legumes in the Ethiopian Farming System and Overall Economy : An Overview The Importance of Legumes in the Ethiopian Farming System and Overall Economy : An Overview,” no. January, 2015, doi: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/11253.
17. H. F. Aga and K. U. Badada, “Original article Nutritional and antinutritional characteristics of Anchote (Coccinia abyssinica),” 1997.
18. B. D. Beruk, F. T. Tadesse, and H. Dereje, “Physical and Proximate Characterization of Anchote (Coccinia abyssinica) Accessions Grown under Hawassa and Wondo Genet Conditions, Southern Ethiopia,” Food Sci. Qual. Manag., vol. 42, no. September, pp. 62–75, 2015.
19. Habtamu Fekadu, “Nutritional composition, antinutritional factors and effect of boiling on nutritional composition of Anchote (Coccinia abyssinica) tubers,” vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 177–188, 2014.
20. E. D. Masarat, “Study on ethnobotany and phenotypic diversity in anchote (Coccinia abyssinica (Lam.) Cogn.) Landraces in western Ethiopia,” Int. J. Agric. Sci., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1404–1427, 2018.
21. A. Parmar, B. Agza Gebre, A. Legesse, Y. Demelash, K. Fladung, and O. Hensel, “Nutritional Comparison of White and Red Coccinia Abyssinica (Lam.) Cong. Accessions: An Under-Utilised Edible Tuber of the Ethiopian Highlands,” 2012, doi: 10.3390/foods6080071.
22. T. A. Shittu, A. O. Raji, and L. O. Sanni, “Bread from composite cassava-wheat flour: I. Effect of baking time and temperature on some physical properties of bread loaf,” Food Res. Int., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 280–290, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2006.10.012.
23. M. Noorfarahzilah, J. S. Lee, M. S. Sharifudin, A. B. Mohd Fadzelly, and M. Hasmadi, “Applications of composite flour in development of food products,” Int. Food Res. J., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 2061–2074, 2014, doi: 10.15740/has/ijae/11.sp.issue/65-69.
24. J. Ndife, L. O. Abdulraheem, and U. M. Zakari, “Evaluation of the nutritional and sensory quality of functional breads produced from whole wheat and soya bean flour blends,” African J. Food Sci., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 466–472, 2011.
25. M. A. I. Schutyser, P. J. M. Pelgrom, A. J. van der Goot, and R. M. Boom, “Dry fractionation for sustainable production of functional legume protein concentrates,” Trends Food Sci. Technol., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 327–335, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2015.04.013.
26. A. O. Obadina, B. O. Babatunde, and I. Olotu, “Changes in nutritional composition, functional, and sensory properties of yam flour as a result of presoaking,” Food Sci. Nutr., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 676–681, 2014, doi: 10.1002/fsn3.150.
27. S. C. Sgroppo, L. E. Vergara, and M. D. Tenev, “Effects of sodium metabisulphite and citric acid on the shelf life of fresh cut sweet potatoes,” Spanish J. Agric. Res., vol. 8, no. 3, p. 686, 2010, doi: 10.5424/sjar/2010083-1266.
28. E. Dako, N. Retta, and G. Desse, “Effect of Blending on Selected Sweet Potato,” Glob. J. Sci. Front. Res. D Agric. Vet., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 31–41, 2016.
29. AOAC, “Analytical methods 1.,” pp. 94–100, 2000.
30. S. Hussain, F. M. Anjum, M. S. Butt, and M. A. Sheikh, “Chemical composition and functional properties of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) flour,” Sarhad J Agric, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 649–653, 2008.
31. E. S. M. Abdel-Aal and F. W. Sosulski, “Bleaching and Fractionation of Dietary Fiber and Protein from Wheat-Based Stillage,” LWT - Food Sci. Technol., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 159–167, 2000, doi: 10.1006/fstl.2000.0741.
32. Uzo-Peters, “Proximate composition and functional properties of composite sorghum-okara flour and sensory evaluation of local snack product (sosa),” Agrosearch, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 158–167, 2020, doi: 10.4314/agrosh.v20i1.14s.
33. E. R. Ohizua et al., “Nutrient composition, functional, and pasting properties of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweetpotato flour blends,” Food Sci. Nutr., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 750–762, 2017, doi: 10.1002/fsn3.455.
34. O. Bouhlal, T. Mona, B. Nadia, A. Benali, A. Visioni, and J. Benba, “Wheat-lentil fortified flours: health benefits, phsicochemical, nutritional and technological properties,” J. Mater. Environ. Sci., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1098–1106, 2019.
35. I. MO and M. N, “Physicochemical and Pasting Properties High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) and Wheat Flour Blends,” Agrotechnology, vol. 06, no. 03, 2017, doi: 10.4172/2168-9881.1000167.
36. C. G. Awuchi, “Proximate composition and functional properties of different grain flour composites for industrial applications,” Int. J. Food Sci. Vol 2 No 1, vol. 2, no. November 2019, pp. 43–64, 2019, [Online]. Available:
37. D. Girma and L. Korbu, “Genetic improvement of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) in Ethiopia: An unfulfilled promise,” Plant Breed., vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 231–236, 2012, doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0523.2011.01935.x.
38. A. O. Adebayo-Oyetoro, O. O. Ogundipe, F. K. Lofinmakin, F. F. Akinwande, D. O. Aina, and S. A. O. Adeyeye, “Production and acceptability of chinchin snack made from wheat and tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) flour,” Cogent Food Agric., vol. 3, no. 1, 2017, doi: 10.1080/23311932.2017.1282185.
39. S. ur Rehman, A. Paterson, S. Hussain, M. Anjum Murtaza, and S. Mehmood, “Influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with vetch (Lathyrus sativus L) flour on quality characteristics of doughnuts,” LWT - Food Sci. Technol., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 73–82, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2005.09.015.
40. Y. A. Adebowale, I. A. Adeyemi, and A. A. Oshodi, “Functional and physicochemical properties of flours of six Mucuna species,” African J. Biotechnol., vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1461–1468, 2005, doi: 10.4314/ajb.v4i12.71409.
41. G. Doxastakis, I. Zafiriadis, M. Irakli, H. Marlani, and C. Tananaki, “Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat flour doughs and their effect on rheological properties,” Food Chem., vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 219–227, 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00362-4.
42. A. A. Akinola and S. N. Ezeorah, “Dehydration Studies of Root Tubers Using a Refractance Windows Dryer Dehydration Studies Of Root Tubers Using A Refractance,” no. June, 2018.
43. P. Kaushal, V. Kumar, and H. K. Sharma, “Comparative study of physicochemical, functional, antinutritional and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta), rice (Oryza sativa) flour, pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) flour and their blends,” LWT - Food Sci. Technol., vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 59–68, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2012.02.028.
44. M. J. Patel and S. Chakrabarti, “Flour quality and dough elasticity: Dough sheetability,” J. Food Eng., vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 371–383, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.10.038.
45. S. Chevallier, P. Colonna, G. Della Valle, and D. Lourdin, “Contribution of major ingredients during baking of biscuit dough systems,” J. Cereal Sci., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 241–252, 2000, doi: 10.1006/jcrs.2000.0308.
46. W. C. Sung and M. Stone, “Characterization of various wheat starch in pasta development,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 61–69, 2003.
47. R. Juhász and A. Salgó, “Pasting behavior of amylose, amylopectin and their mixtures as determined by RVA curves and first derivatives,” Starch/Staerke, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 70–78, 2008, doi: 10.1002/star.200700634.
48. E.-B. Onyeneke, “Functional And Pasting Properties of Products Of White And,” vol. 17, no. 1, 2019.
49. M. N. G. Amin et al., “Functional and rheological properties of mixed flour from mangrove fruit of bruguiera gymnorrhiza flour and wheat flour,” Food Res., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 167–173, 2021, doi: 10.26656/fr.2017.5(1).356.
50. M. A. Ajatta, S. A. Akinola, and O. F. Osundahunsi, “Proximate, Functional and Pasting Properties of Composite Flours Made from Wheat, Breadfruit and Cassava Starch,” Appl. Trop. Agric., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 158–165, 2016.
51. Kiin-Kabari, “Functional and Pasting Properties of Wheat / Plantain Flours Enriched with Bambara Groundnut Protein Concentrate,” Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. Eng., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 75–81, 2015, doi: 10.5923/
52. T. B. Verem, I. B. Dooshima, and E. M. Ojoutu, “Proximate, Chemical and Functional Properties of Wheat, Soy and Moringa Leaf Composite Flours,” pp. 18–38, 2021, doi: 10.4236/as.2021.121003.