International Journal of Food Engineering and Technology

Archive

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Formulation, Optimization and Characterization of Dietary Cookies from Blends of Corn, Peanut, Sweet Potato and Soybean

Traditionally wheat is used for cookies production but the harsh climatic conditions in the tropical regions is not conducive for the growth of wheat. There are locally grown crops that can be used to produce high quality cookies that meet consumer’s dietary requirements. The aim of this study was to develop, characterize, and optimize the formulation and some production processes of dietary cookies from blends of corn, peanut, sweet potato and soybean. A four-component, constrained, randomized, combined, D-optimal mixture-process experimental design; with 34 randomized experimental runs, was employed. The formulation design constraints were: roasted corn flour (20% - 70%), defatted peanut meal (10% - 30%), blanched soybean (10% - 30%), and sweet potato extract/gel (5% - 20%). The four major components comprise 95% of the total mixture. Other minor components of the formulation, which were kept constant throughout the experimentation, were: sugar (1 %), baking powder (0.8 %), baking fat (0.2 %), and water (3 %). The processing parameters investigated were: baking temperature (120°C - 180°C) and baking time (10min – 25min). The formulated dietary cookies were analyzed and evaluated for the proximate properties, physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics using standard procedures. The result of the dietary cookies optimization gave optimal formulated dietary cookie with overall desirability index of 0.531, based on the set optimization goals and individual quality desirability indices. The optimal cookie was obtained from 22.744% roasted corn, 26.589% defatted peanut, 25.666% blanched soybean, 20.0% sweet potato extract/gel, 1380C baking temperature, and 25 minutes baking time. The quality properties of this optimal cookies are 14.071% moisture content, 25.699% crude protein, 4.957% crude fibre, 16.033% fat content, 34.388% carbohydrate, 7.234% ash content, 386.440 Kcal/100g energy value, 381.514 mg/100g potassium, 80.0 mg/100g calcium, 3.789 mg/100g iron, 0.552 mg/100g zinc, 75.088% digestibility, 20.566 D/T spread ratio, 0.657 g/cubic cm bulk density, 1.695g breaking strength, and overall acceptability of 5.96, based on 9-point hedonic scale. The result of the study showed that the formulated dietary cookies was of high quality and that improving nutritional quality of cookies is possible through composite formulation. It is recommended that further study be carried out on formulation of nutritionally improved dietary cookies using other nutritionally rich roots and legumes. Enrichment of cookies with these protein-rich sources will result in cookies with improved nutrient quality that meets the consumer’s dietary needs.

Dietary Cookies, Composite Flours, Formulation, Characterization, Optimization

APA Style

Samuel Tunde Olorunsogo, Alexander Inalegwu Ochohi. (2023). Formulation, Optimization and Characterization of Dietary Cookies from Blends of Corn, Peanut, Sweet Potato and Soybean. International Journal of Food Engineering and Technology, 7(1), 44-67. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijfet.20230701.14

ACS Style

Samuel Tunde Olorunsogo; Alexander Inalegwu Ochohi. Formulation, Optimization and Characterization of Dietary Cookies from Blends of Corn, Peanut, Sweet Potato and Soybean. Int. J. Food Eng. Technol. 2023, 7(1), 44-67. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfet.20230701.14

AMA Style

Samuel Tunde Olorunsogo, Alexander Inalegwu Ochohi. Formulation, Optimization and Characterization of Dietary Cookies from Blends of Corn, Peanut, Sweet Potato and Soybean. Int J Food Eng Technol. 2023;7(1):44-67. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfet.20230701.14

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Mareti MC, Grossmann MVE, Benassi MT (2010) Physical and sensorial characteristics of cookies containing deffated soy flour and oat bran. Food Sci Technol 4: 878–883.
2. Norhayati MK, Mohd Fairulnizal MN, Zaiton A, Wan Syuriahti W Z, Rusidah S, et al. (2015) Nutritional composition of selected commercial biscuits in Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 44 (4): 581-591.
3. Anu Bala, Khalid Gul, and Charanjit Singh Riar (2015) Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours. Cogent Food & Agriculture (2015), 1: 1019815.
4. Latif MA and Pik Wan VC (2023) Production of Biscuit Mixed with Date Powder. Food Sci & Nutri Tech 2023, 8 (1): 000289.
5. Akubor, P. I., Ukwuru, M. U., 2005. Functional properties and biscuit making potential of soybean and cassava flour blends. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 58, 1–12.
6. Halina Gambus, Florian Gambus, Dorota Pastuszka, Paulina Wrona, Rafal Ziobro, Renata Sabat, Barbara Mickowska, Anna Nowotna & Marek Sikora. 2009. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition; 60 (S4): 31-50.
7. Oluwamukomi M. O., Oluwalana, I. B., and Akinbowale O. F. 2011. Physicochemical and sensory properties of wheat-cassava composite biscuit enriched with soy flour. African Journal of Food Science Vol. 5 (2) pp. 5, 50-56.
8. Okpala, L. C. and Okoli, E. C. (2011) Formulation and Evaluation of Cookies Containing Germinated Pigeon Pea, Fermented Sorghum and Cocoyam Flour Blends Using Mixture Response Surface Methodology. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3, 366-375.
9. Neha, Mishra, and Chandra Ramesh. 2012. Development of functional biscuit from soy flour and rice bran. Int. J. Agric. Food Sci. 2: 14–20.
10. Aleksandra Torbica, Miroslav Hadnađev, Tamara Dapčević Hadnađev. 2012. Rice and buckwheat flour characterisation and its relation to cookie quality. Food Research International 48 (2012) 277–283.
11. Isabelle L. Brito & Evandro Leite de Souza & Suênia Samara Santos Felex & Marta Suely Madruga & Fábio Yamashita & Marciane Magnani (2015) Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design. J Food Sci Technol 52 (9): 5866–5873.
12. David B. Kiin-Kabari & Sunday Y. Giami. 2015. Physico Chemical Properties and in-vitro Protein Digestibility of Non-Wheat Cookies Prepared From Plantain Flour and Bambara Groundnut Protein Concentrate. Journal of Food Research; Vol. 4, No. 2; 2015.
13. Olugbenga O. Awolu, Olufunmilayo S. Omoba, Olumide Olawoye & Modupe Dairo. 2016. Optimization of production and quality evaluation of maize-based snack supplemented with soybean and tiger-nut (Cyperus esculenta) flour. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
14. Abiodun A. Adeola and Ehimen R. Ohizua. 2018. Physical, chemical, and sensory properties of biscuits prepared from flour blends of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweet potato. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. www.foodscience-nutrition.com
15. Ayo A., Ojo M. O., Popoola C. A., Ayo V. A., and Okpasu A. 2018. Production and Quality Evaluation of Acha-tigernut Composite Flour and Biscuits. Asian Food Science Journal 1 (3): 1-12, 2018; Article no. AFSJ. 39644.
16. Seyedeh Zeinab Asadi, Mohammad Ali Khan, Ratnavathi Venkata Chamarthy. 2020. Development and quality evaluation of cookies supplemented with concentrated fiber powder from chiku (Manilkara zapota L.). Food Sci Technol https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04695-w
17. Adeyemi, S. A. O., Ogazi, P. O., 1985. The place of plantain in composite flour. Commerce Industry, Lagos state, Nigeria, WHO Rep Seri 1973 No 522 WHO Geneva.
18. Shittu, T. A., Raji, A. O., Sanni, A. O., 2007. Effect of baking time on some physical properties of bread loaf. Food Res Int. 40 (2), 280–290.
19. Oladunmoye, O. O., Akinoso, R., Olapade, A. A., 2010. Evaluation of some physical-chemical properties of wheat, cassava, maize and cowpea flours for bread making. J. Food Qual. 33, 693–708.
20. Chinma C. E. and Gernah D. I. 2007. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cookies Produced from Cassava/Soyabean/Mango Composite Flours. Journal of Food Technology, 5: 256-260.
21. World Health Organization. 2003. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (2002: Geneva, Switzerland), 28 January - 1 February 2002.
22. Müller, O. and Krawinkel, M. (2005) Malnutrition and Health in Developing Countries. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 173, 279-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.050342
23. Stefano Padulosi, Judith Thompson and Per Rudebjer. 2013. Fighting Poverty, Hunger and Malnutrition with Neglected and Underutilized Species: Needs, Challenges and the Way Forward. Bioversity International Via dei Tre Denari 472/a 00057 Maccarese, Rome, Italy. bioversity@cgiar.org.
24. Padulosi, S., Thompson, J., Rudebjer, P. 2013. Fighting poverty, hunger and malnutrition with neglected and underutilized species (NUS): needs, challenges and the way forward. Bioversity International, Rome.
25. Falguera V, Aliguer N, Falguera M (2012) An integrated approach to current trends in food consumption: moving toward functional and organic products? Food Control 26: 274–281.
26. World Food Programme (WFP), 2002. Annual Report. https://cdn.wfp.org/wfp.org/publications/2002_wfp_annual_report.pdf
27. Sivakami S. P. L. and Sarojini K. S. (2013). Formulation of value added biscuits using defatted coconut flour. America journal of food technology. 8 (3) 207-212.
28. Noorfarahzihah, M., Lee, J. S., Sharifudin, M. S., Mohd-Fadzelly, A. B., & Hasmadi, M. (2014). Application of composite flour in development of food products. International Food Research, 21, 2061–2074.
29. Bojana M. Šarić, Nataša M. Nedeljković, Olivera D. Šimurina, Mladenka V. Pestorić, Jovana J. Kos, Anamarija I. Mandić, Marijana B. Sakaĉ, Ljubiša Ć. Šarić, ĐorĊe B. Psodorov, Aleksandra Ĉ. Mišan. 2014. The influence of baking time and temperature on characteristics of gluten free cookies enriched with blueberry pomace. Food and Feed Research 41 (1) 39-46,
30. Omah E. C. and Okafor G. I. (2015). Production and quality evaluation of cookies from blends of millet pigeon pea composite flour and cassava cortex. Journal of food resource science 4: 23-32.
31. Jauharah MA, Rosli WW, Robert SD (2014) Physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit and muffin incorporated with young corn powder. Sains Malaysiana 43 (1): 45-52.
32. Ajibola F. C, Oyerinde O. V. and Adeniyan S. O. (2015). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of whole wheat biscuits incorporated with Moringa oleifera leaves and cocoa powder. Journal of scientific research and report 7 (3) 195 – 206.
33. Bornare D, Khan K (2015) Physical and sensory evaluation of cookies incorporated with oats and honey. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology 4 (8): 407-411.
34. Shabnam S, Dar AH, Aga MB, Khan SA (2020) Effect of date powder and peach pomace powder on themicrostructure and functional attributes of cookies. Journal of Postharvest Technology 8 (3): 37-49.
35. Rojo-Poveda O, Barbosa-Pereira L, Orden D, Stévigny C, Zeppa G, et al. (2020) Physical properties and consumer evaluation of cocoa bean shell-functionalized biscuits adapted for diabetic consumers by the replacement of sucrose with tagatose. Foods 9 (6): 814.
36. Dhankhar J, Vashistha N, Sharma A (2021) Development of biscuits by partial substitution of refined wheat flour with chickpea flour and date powder. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 8 (8): 1093-1097.
37. Wendell F. Smith. 2005. Experimental Design for Formulation. American Statistical Association and the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Pages 281-290.
38. ReliaSoft. 2015. Experiment Design and Analysis Reference. ReliaSoft Corporation Worldwide Headquarters, 1450 South East side Loop Tucson, Arizona 85710-6703, USA http://www.ReliaSoft.com. Pages 205-209.
39. Raymond H. Myers, Douglas C. Montgomery and Christine M. Anderson-Cook 2016. Response surface methodology - process and product optimization using designed experiments. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, Pages 341-343, 557-628.
40. Dharmaraja Selvamuthu and Dipayan Das. 2018. Introduction to Statistical Methods - Design of Experiments and Statistical Quality Control. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. Pages 344-346.