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Epidemiology and Diagnostic Methods of Foot-and-Mouth Disease: A Review

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease that primarily affects animals with cloven hooves. It is a highly contagious disease and difficult to control due to its complex epidemiological nature and poor diagnostic facilities. Thus, this paper aimed to review the epidemiology of FMD, and its economic impact on farmers, discuss the available diagnostic, and prevention and control methods that can be practiced. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of FMD, and it is a single-stranded RNA virus with a positive sense that belongs to the genus Aphthovirus and the family Picornaviridae. The virus has seven serologically and genetically distinct serotypes, namely O, A, C, Asia1, SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3, as well as over 60 subtypes. The virus is inactivated by heat, UV radiation, pH levels below 6.5 or above 9, gamma irradiation, chemicals, and disinfectants, but it is almost indefinitely stable at temperatures below freezing point. The tongue, dental pad, gums, cheek, hard and soft palates, lips, nostrils, muzzle, interdigital space (between the hooves), and a coronary band of affected animals develop vesicular lesions. Viruses can be spread orally or via the respiratory tract. FMD is diagnosed based on clinical signs, and using epidemiological methods and laboratory techniques. FMD causes severe economic losses as a result of high morbidity associated with outbreak occurrences, limiting the introduction of improved production technologies in the area, restrictions on international trade, and costs associated with the application of control measures. Some of the control and prevention methods for FMD are vaccination, animal movement control, physical separation from wildlife, and symptomatic treatment. But due to its complex epidemiological nature, limited diagnostic capabilities, and no cross-immunity between strains, FMD was difficult to control. Therefore, awareness creation among animal owners about the disease, and possible prevention and control methods that can be practiced is required. And also, research in the development of a multivalent and protective vaccine is recommended.

Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Foot-and-Mouth Disease

APA Style

Betelihem Yirdaw, Dessie Abera. (2023). Epidemiology and Diagnostic Methods of Foot-and-Mouth Disease: A Review. International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science, 9(3), 38-46.

ACS Style

Betelihem Yirdaw; Dessie Abera. Epidemiology and Diagnostic Methods of Foot-and-Mouth Disease: A Review. Int. J. Biomed. Eng. Clin. Sci. 2023, 9(3), 38-46. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbecs.20230903.12

AMA Style

Betelihem Yirdaw, Dessie Abera. Epidemiology and Diagnostic Methods of Foot-and-Mouth Disease: A Review. Int J Biomed Eng Clin Sci. 2023;9(3):38-46. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbecs.20230903.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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