Education Journal

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) in Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a teaching strategy that promotes learning and socialization. In contrast to the traditional classroom, the teacher in a cooperative learning setting is no longer the director of instruction but the facilitator of learning. The students are responsible for their own learning while the teacher models strategies and provides scaffolding to support students’ thinking until they are ready to learn and work on their own This paper, on the basis of the theories and researches that have been done on cooperative learning, will have an overview of this field with emphasis on two cooperative learning approaches----Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD), Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT). These techniques are successful in the perspective of motivation in the classroom. In addition, the issues involved in each method and the teaching implications were discussed. For instance, the problems classroom teachers may face when using these methods and the possible solutions to such problems. Finally, an attempt is made to explore some unresolved issues in cooperative learning. This paper concludes that cooperative learning has the potential to become a primary teaching approach to achieving various goals. However, there is a need for more research on the conditions necessary for success in cooperative learning.

Cooperative Learning, STAD, TGT, Teaching Implication

APA Style

Li Pei-qi. (2023). Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) in Cooperative Learning . Education Journal, 12(5), 231-234. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.edu.20231205.16

ACS Style

Li Pei-qi. Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) in Cooperative Learning . Educ. J. 2023, 12(5), 231-234. doi: 10.11648/j.edu.20231205.16

AMA Style

Li Pei-qi. Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) in Cooperative Learning . Educ J. 2023;12(5):231-234. doi: 10.11648/j.edu.20231205.16

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Cohen, E. (1994). Restructuring the classroom: Conditions for productive small groups. Review of Educational Research, 64, 1-35.
2. O'Donnell, A. and O'Kelly, J. (1994) Learning from peers: Beyond the rhetoric of positive results. Educational Psychology Review, 6, 321-349.
3. Johnson, D. W. and Johnson, R. T. (1994) An overview of cooperative learning. Chapter 3 (pp. 31-44) in J. S. Thousand, R. Villa and A. Nevin (eds) Creativity and Collaborative Learning (Brookes).
4. Johnson, D. W. and Johnson, R. T. (1985) Classroom conflict: controversy versus debate in learning groups. American Educational Research Journal, 22, 237-256.
5. Nastasi, B. K. and Clements, D (1991) Research on cooperative learning: Implications for practice. School Psychology Review, 20, 110-131.
6. Killen, R (1998) Effective teaching strategies: Lessons from research and practice (2" ed.). Katoomba, N. S. W. Social Science Press.
7. Cohen, E. (1994). Restructuring the classroom: Conditions for productive small groups. Review of Educational Research, 64, 8.
8. Salvin, R. E. (1996) Research on cooperative learning and achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 43-69.
9. Kaendler, C., Wiedmann, M., Rummel, N. & Spada, H. (2015) Teacher competencies for the implementation of collaborative learning in the classroom: a framework and research review. Educational Psychology Review, 27:505–536.
10. Gillies, R. M. (2003). The behaviours, interactions and perceptions of junior high school students during small-group learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 137-147.
11. Gillies, R. M. and Ashman, A. F. (2003). The effects of cooperative learning on students with learning difficulties in the lower elementary school. Journal of Special Education, 34(1), 20.
12. Gillies, R. M. Ashman, A. F. and Terwel, J. (2008). The Teacher's Role in Implementing Cooperative Learning in the Classroom. New York: Springer.
13. Weinsteinidy, R. (2011). Elementary classroom managements: Lessons from research and practice. NY: MC Graw Hill.
14. Webb, N. M., Nemer, K. M. and Chizhik, A. W. (1998) Equity issues in collaborative group assessment: group composition and performance. American Educational Research Journal, 35, 607-651.
15. Stevens, R. J. and Slavin, R. E (1995) The cooperative elementary school: Effects on students' achievement, attitudes and social relations. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 321-351.