Composite Materials


Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Analysis of Damage-Induced on Fiber Reinforced S-Glass Composite Laminate at Low Velocity Loading Condition

Structural performance of reinforced S-glass composite laminate at low velocity impact loading was investigated with three different impactors to characterize the induced-damage behavior. In this study, a total of 12 samples were tested numerically with three distinct impactors at four different energy thresholds 5-13 J to examine the damage behavior of the reinforced S-glass composite laminate in terms of intra-laminar, inter-laminar and stress failure responses. Dynamic finite element coded ABAQUS/Explicit software through user-written subroutines was used to create the geometry models to capture the impact damage response. A composite laminate plate of diameter 150 mm and thickness 6.5 mm with stacking configuration [90/45/45/0/-45]S was designed together with three different impactor geometrical shapes (spherical, flat cylindrical and conical). The flat cylindrical impactor measures 15 mm radius and 20 mm high; the conical shape length 20 mm, radius 15 mm with a tip-end angle of 112°; while the spherical impactor measures 15 mm in radius. This impactor was modeled as analytical rigid body of mass 1.6 kg with a force of 15.69 N prescribed in transverse direction and composite plate was actuated by surface-to-surface contact pairs within ABAQUS/Explicit platform with penalty enforcement contact method. A relative fine element mesh of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm was applied on the impact location on the composite laminate with failed interface elements allowed to remain in the model to circumvent penetration of damage layers using an element option platform. A total number of 83640 solid elements, 75276 cohesive elements and 171420 nodes were applied for the simulation. This study discloses that irrespective of impactor profile, damage threshold increases with increase in impact energy level. The dominant damage modes found in the composite laminate are matrix cracking and delamination. The study also shows better correlation among the models for damage area responses and that flat head impactor exhibits largest delamination area compared to spherical and conical edge impactors. The study shows that stress value on the conical edge impactor is greater on the impacted layer and lesser on the bottom layer amongst the impactors due to geometrical profile. Comparison amongst the models raises the necessity to incorporate energy distortion criterion into this constitutive damage model. It is therefore recommended to engineers and researchers to adapt this model to improve and optimize the design processes of composite materials in the automobile and aviation structural applications.

Damage-Induced, Delamination, Impactors, Stress Distribution, User-Defined Material

APA Style

Enock Andrews Duodu. (2022). Analysis of Damage-Induced on Fiber Reinforced S-Glass Composite Laminate at Low Velocity Loading Condition. Composite Materials, 6(2), 49-58.

ACS Style

Enock Andrews Duodu. Analysis of Damage-Induced on Fiber Reinforced S-Glass Composite Laminate at Low Velocity Loading Condition. Compos. Mater. 2022, 6(2), 49-58. doi: 10.11648/

AMA Style

Enock Andrews Duodu. Analysis of Damage-Induced on Fiber Reinforced S-Glass Composite Laminate at Low Velocity Loading Condition. Compos Mater. 2022;6(2):49-58. doi: 10.11648/

Copyright © 2022 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Artero-Guerrero JA, Pernas-Sánchez J, López-Puente J, Varas D. Experimental study of the impactor mass effect on the low velocity impact of carbon/epoxy woven laminates. Composite Structures. 2015; 133: 774-81.
2. Panettieri E, Fanteria D, Firrincieli A. Damage initialization techniques for non-sequential FE propagation analysis of delaminations in composite aerospace structures. Meccanica. 2015; 50: 2569-85.
3. Fanteria D, Panettieri E. A non-linear model for in-plane shear damage and failure of composite laminates. Aerotecnica Missili & Spazio. 2016; 93: 17-24.
4. Remacha M, Sánchez-Sáez S, López-Romano B, Barbero E. A new device for determining the compression after impact strength in thin laminates. Composite Structures. 2015; 127: 99-107.
5. Nardi D, Lampani L, Pasquali M, Gaudenzi P. Detection of low-velocity impact-induced delaminations in composite laminates using Auto-Regressive models. Composite Structures. 2016; 151: 108-13.
6. Drosopoulos GA, Wriggers P, Stavroulakis GE. A multi-scale computational method including contact for the analysis of damage in composite materials. Computational Materials Science. 2014; 95: 522-35.
7. Evci C. Thickness-dependent energy dissipation characteristics of laminated composites subjected to low velocity impact. Composite Structures. 2015; 133: 508-21.
8. Guillaud N, Froustey C, Dau F, Viot P. Impact response of thick composite plates under uniaxial tensile preloading. Composite Structures. 2015; 121: 172-81.
9. Olsson R. Analytical prediction of damage due to large mass impact on thin ply composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2015; 72: 184-91.
10. Salvetti M, Gilioli A, Sbarufatti C, Dragan K, Chalimoniuk M, Manes A, et al. Analytical Model to Describe Damage in CFRP Specimen When Subjected to Low Velocity Impacts. Procedia Engineering. 2016; 167: 2-9.
11. Ahmad F, Hong J-W, Choi HS, Park MK. Hygro effects on the low-velocity impact behavior of unidirectional CFRP composite plates for aircraft applications. Composite Structures. 2016; 135: 276-85.
12. Farooq U, Myler P. Efficient computational modelling of carbon fibre reinforced laminated composite panels subjected to low velocity drop-weight impact. Materials & Design (1980-2015). 2014; 54: 43-56.
13. LONGO G. Models and methods to simulate low-energy impact damage on composite aerospace structures. 2011.
14. Panettieri E, Fanteria D, Danzi F. Delaminations growth in compression after impact test simulations: Influence of cohesive elements parameters on numerical results. Composite Structures. 2016; 137: 140-7.
15. Fan J, Guan Z, Cantwell WJ. Modeling perforation in glass fiber reinforced composites subjected to low velocity impact loading. Polymer Composites. 2011; 32: 1380-8.
16. Farooq U, Myler P. Finite element simulation of carbon fibre-reinforced composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact using damage induced static load-deflection methodology. Thin-Walled Structures. 2015; 97: 63-73.
17. Evci C, Gülgeç M. An experimental investigation on the impact response of composite materials. International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2012; 43: 40-51.
18. Yang L, Wu Z, Gao D, Liu X. Microscopic damage mechanisms of fibre reinforced composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact. Computational Materials Science. 2016; 111: 148-56.
19. Panettieri E, Fanteria D, Montemurro M, Froustey C. Low-velocity impact tests on carbon/epoxy composite laminates: A benchmark study. Composites Part B: Engineering. 2016; 107: 9-21.
20. Mishra A, Naik N. Failure initiation in composite structures under low-velocity impact: Analytical studies. Composite Structures. 2010; 92: 436-44.
21. Lopresto V, Caprino G. Damage mechanisms and energy absorption in composite laminates under low velocity impact loads. Dynamic Failure of Composite and Sandwich Structures: Springer; 2013. p. 209-89.
22. Singh H, Mahajan P. Analytical modeling of low velocity large mass impact on composite plate including damage evolution. Composite Structures. 2016; 149: 79-92.
23. Farooq U, Myler P. Finite element simulation of damage and failure predictions of relatively thick carbon fibre-reinforced laminated composite panels subjected to flat and round noses low velocity drop-weight impact. Thin-Walled Structures. 2016; 104: 82-105.
24. Topac OT, Gozluklu B, Gurses E, Coker D. Experimental and computational study of the damage process in CFRP composite beams under low-velocity impact. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2017; 92: 167-82.
25. Sakly A, Laksimi A, Kebir H, Benmedakhen S. Experimental and modelling study of low velocity impacts on composite sandwich structures for railway applications. Engineering Failure Analysis. 2016; 68: 22-31.
26. Lopes C, Sádaba S, González C, Llorca J, Camanho P. Physically-sound simulation of low-velocity impact on fiber reinforced laminates. International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2016; 92: 3-17.
27. Pérez MA, Martínez X, Oller S, Gil L, Rastellini F, Flores F. Impact damage prediction in carbon fiber-reinforced laminated composite using the matrix-reinforced mixing theory. Composite Structures. 2013; 104: 239-48.
28. Alshahrani RF, Merah N, Khan SM, Al-Nassar Y. On the impact-induced damage in glass fiber reinforced epoxy pipes. International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2016; 97: 57-65.
29. Bienias J, Jakubczak P, Dadej K. Low-velocity impact resistance of aluminium glass laminates–Experimental and numerical investigation. Composite Structures. 2016; 152: 339-48.
30. Duodu EA, Gu J, Ding W, Shang Z, Tang SJIJoS, Technology ToME. Simulation of composite laminate with cohesive interface elements under low-velocity impact loading. 2019; 43: 127-38.
31. Maio L, Monaco E, Ricci F, Lecce L. Simulation of low velocity impact on composite laminates with progressive failure analysis. Composite Structures. 2013; 103: 75-85.
32. Farooq U, Myler P. Flat nose low velocity drop-weight impact response of carbon bre composites using non-destructive damage detection techniques. 2015.
33. Farooq U. Finite element simulation of flat nose low velocity impact behaviour of carbon fibre composite laminates: University of Bolton; 2014.
34. Whisler D, Kim H. Effect of impactor radius on low-velocity impact damage of glass/epoxy composites. Journal of Composite Materials. 2012; 46: 3137-49.
35. Sepe R, De Luca A, Lamanna G, Caputo F. Numerical and experimental investigation of residual strength of a LVI damaged CFRP omega stiffened panel with a cut-out. Composites Part B: Engineering. 2016; 102: 38-56.
36. Long S, Yao X, Zhang X. Delamination prediction in composite laminates under low-velocity impact. Composite Structures. 2015; 132: 290-8.
37. Version A. 6.11. User’s manual. Dassault Systemes. 2011.
38. Manual AUs. Version 6.11. ABAQUS Inc: Providence, RI, USA. 2011.
39. Bandaru AK, Ahmad S. Modeling of progressive damage for composites under ballistic impact. Composites Part B: Engineering. 2016; 93: 75-87.
40. Shi Y, Swait T, Soutis C. Modelling damage evolution in composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact. Composite Structures. 2012; 94: 2902-13.
41. Zarei H, Sadighi M, Minak G. Ballistic analysis of fiber metal laminates impacted by flat and conical impactors. Composite Structures. 2017; 161: 65-72.
42. Yang L, Yan Y, Kuang N. Experimental and numerical investigation of aramid fibre reinforced laminates subjected to low velocity impact. Polymer Testing. 2013; 32: 1163-73.
43. Ansari MM, Chakrabarti A. Influence of projectile nose shape and incidence angle on the ballistic perforation of laminated glass fiber composite plate. Composites Science and Technology. 2017; 142: 107-16.