Bioprocess Engineering

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Optimization of Lactic Acid Fermentation from Overriped Plantain Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Lactic acid is a building block chemical used by many manufacturing industries. The search for cheap biochemical feedstock and process is of great concern to lactic acid producing industries. Plantain is a rich source of carbohydrate but the overriped plantains are thrown away as waste because of their non-firmness. This study evaluates the utilization of overripe plantain as biochemical feedstock for optimum production of lactic acid. Optimization of lactic acid production with overriped plantain was studied using Response Surface Methodology. The initial pH and reducing sugar content of the plantain hydrolysate were 4.89 and 166.05 g/l respectively. The response of lactic acid concentration to four factors: substrate concentration (138.25 – 166.05 g/L), initial pH (4 – 8), fermentation temperature (30 – 50°C) and time (24 – 168 h) was studied. The lactic acid concentration ranged from 123.50 – 163.00 g/l. A statistically significant [(Pmodel>F) < 0.0001] second order quadratic polynomial regression model was obtained for lactic acid production; the R2 and adjusted-R2 were 0.9935 and 0.9896 respectively. Numerical optimization was used to obtain optimum lactic acid production (157.53 g/ L) at glucose concentration, pH, temperature and time of 159.10 g/l, 7.0, 42.3°C and 60 h respectively. Overriped plantain was a good biochemical feedstock for lactic acid production.

Lactic Acid, Optimization, Overripe Plantain, Fermentation, Response Surface Methodology

APA Style

Alao Adeyinka Idowu, Agarry Samuel Enahoro, Afolabi Tinuade Jolaade. (2023). Optimization of Lactic Acid Fermentation from Overriped Plantain Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Bioprocess Engineering, 7(1), 1-9.

ACS Style

Alao Adeyinka Idowu; Agarry Samuel Enahoro; Afolabi Tinuade Jolaade. Optimization of Lactic Acid Fermentation from Overriped Plantain Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Bioprocess Eng. 2023, 7(1), 1-9. doi: 10.11648/

AMA Style

Alao Adeyinka Idowu, Agarry Samuel Enahoro, Afolabi Tinuade Jolaade. Optimization of Lactic Acid Fermentation from Overriped Plantain Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Bioprocess Eng. 2023;7(1):1-9. doi: 10.11648/

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. John, R. P., Anisha, G. S., Nampoothiri, K. M. and Pandey, A. (2009). Direct lactic acid fermentation: Focus on simultaneous saccharification and lactic acid production. Biotechnology Advances 27: 145-152.
2. Tashiro, Y., Kaneko, W., Sun, Y., Shibata, K., Inokuma, K., Zendo, T. and Sonomoto, K. (2011). Continuous D-lactis acid production by a novel thermotolerant Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp lactis QU41. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 89: 1741-1750.
3. Krishna, B. S., Nikhilesh, G. S. S., Besetty, T., Narayana, S. K. V. and Gopinadh, R. (2018). Industrial production of lactic acid and its applications. International Journal of Biotechnology Research, 1 (1), 42–54.
4. Narayanan N., Roychoudhury, P. K. and Srivastava, A. (2004). L(+) lactic acid fermentation and its product polymerization. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 7 (2): 167-179.
5. John, R. P., Nampoothiri, K. M. and Pandey, A. (2007). Fermentative production of lactic acid from biomass: an overview on product developments and future perspectives. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 74: 524-534.
6. Wang, Y., Tashiro, Y. and Sonomoto, K. (2015). Fermentative production of lactic acid from renewable materials: recent achievements, prospects and limits. Bioscience and Bioengineering, 119; 10-18.
7. Rodrigues, C., Vandenberghe, L. P. S., and Woiciechowski, A. L., DeOliveira, J., Letti, L. A. J. and Soccol, C. R. (2017). Production and Application of Lactic Acid. Current Development In Biotechnology And Bioengineering, 543-556.
8. Kulozic, U. and Wilde, W. (1999). Rapid lactic acid production at high cell concentrations in whey ultrafiltrate by Lactobacillus helveticus. Enzyme Microbiology and Technology 24 (5-6): 297-302.
9. Abdel-Rahman, M. A., Tashiro, Y. and Sonomoto, K. (2013). Recent advances in lactic production by microbial fermentation processes. Biotechnology Advances 31: 877-902.
10. Venkatesh, K. V. (1997). Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to lactic acid. Bioresources Technology 62, 91-98.
11. Abdel-Rahman, M. A., Tashiro, Y., Zendo, T., Hanada, K., Shibata, K. and sonomoto, K. (2011). Efficient homofermentative L-(+)-lactic acid production from xylose by a novel lactic acid bacterium, Enterococcus mundtii QU 25. Applied Environmental Microbiology 77, 1892-1895.
12. John, R. P., Nampoothiri, K. M., and Pandey, A. (2006a). Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava bagasse for L-(+)-lactic acid production using Lactobacilli. Applied Biochemical and Biotechnology 134, 263-272.
13. John, R. P., Nampoothiri, K. M., and Pandey, A. (2006b). Solid state fermentation for L-lactic acid production from agro wastes using Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Biochemical Processes 41, 759-763.
14. Pandey, A., Soccol, C. R., Rodriguez-Leon, J. A. and Nigam, P. (2001). Production of organic acids by solid state fermentation. In: solid state fermentation in biotechnology: fundamentals and applications. Asiatech Publishers, New Delhi, pp 127.
15. Saha, B. C. and Nakamura, L. K. (2003). Production of mannitol and lactic acid by fermentation with Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 82, 865-871.
16. Naveena, B. J., Altaf, M. Bhadrayya, K., Madhavendra, S. S. and Reddy, G. (2005). Direct fermentation of starch to L(+) lactic acid in SSF by Lactobacillus amylophylus GV6 using wheat bran as support and substrate-medium optimization using RSM. Biochemical Processes 40, 681-690.
17. John, R. P., Nampoothiri, K. M., and Pandey, A. (2006c). Simultaneous saccharification and L-(+)-lactic acid fermentation of using mixed culture of lactobacilli. Biotechnology Letters 28, 1823-1826.
18. Laopaiboon, P., Thani, A., Leelavatcharamas, V. and Laopaiboon, L. (2010). Acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for lactic acid production. Bioresource Technology 101, 1036-1043.
19. Nakano, S., Ugwu, C. U. and Tokiwa, Y. (2012). Efficient production of D-(-)-lactic acid from broken rice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii using Ca(OH)2 as a neutralizing agent. Bioresource Technology 104, 791-794.
20. Cui, F., Li, Y., and Wan, C. (2011). Lactic acid production from corn stover using mixed cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus brevis. Bioresource Technology 102, 1831-1836.
21. Choi, J., Kim, S. and Moon, S. (2002). Recovery of lactic acid from sodium lactate by ion substitution using ion-exchange membrane. Separation and Purification Technology 28 (1), 69-79.
22. Djukic-Vukovic, A. P., Mojovic, L. V, Vukašinovic-Sukolic, M. S., Rakin, M. B., Nikolic, S. B., Pejin, J. D., and Bulatovic, M. L. (2012). Effect of different fermentation parameters on L -lactic acid production from liquid distillery stillage. Food Chemistry 134, 1038-1043.
23. Ye, L., Hudari, M. S. B., Li, Z. and Wu, J. C. (2014). Simultaneous detoxification, saccharification and co-fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch hydrolysate for lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans JII2. Biochemical Engineering 83, 16-21.
24. Nolasco-Hipolito, C., Zarrabal, O. C., Kamaldin, R. M., Teck-Yee, L., Lihan, S., Bujang, K. B. and Nitta, Y. (2012). Lactic acid production by Enterococcus faecium in liquefied sago starch. AMB Express 2 (1), 1-9.
25. Olorunda, A. O. and Adelusola M. A. (1997). Screening of Plantain / Banana Cultivars for Import, Storage and Processing Characteristics. Paper Presented at the International Symposium on Genetic Improvement of Bananas for Resistance to Disease and Pests, 7-9th September, IRAD, Montpellier, France.
26. Adi, D. D., Oduro, I. N. and Tortoe, C. (2019). Physicochemical changes in plantain during normal storage ripening. Scientific African, 6, 1 - 12.
27. Agoreyo, B. O., Agoreyo, F. O. and Omigie, M. I. (2017). Antioxidant activity, phyttochemical and antioxidant levels of Musa paradisiaca L. and Musa sapentium L. at various ripening stages. European Journal of Food Science and Technology 5 (2), 41 - 59.
28. AOAC, (2020). Official Methods of Analysis (21st edition). Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
29. Wood, I. P., Elliston, A., Ryden, P., Bancroft, I., Roberts, I. N. and Waldron, K. W. (2012). Rapid quantification of reducing sugars in biomass hydrolysates: Improving the speed and precision of the dinitrosalicylic acid assay. Biomass and Bioenergy 44, 117-121.
30. Payot, T., Chemaly, Z. and Fick, M. (1999). Lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans-Kinetic studies and optimization of culture medium for batch and continuous fermentations. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 24, 191-199.
31. Yu, L., Lei, T., Ren, X., Pei, X. and Feng, Y. (2008). Response surface optimization of L-(+)-lactic acid production using corn steep liquor as an alternative nitrogen source by Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC 1466. Biochemical Engineering 39, 496-502.
32. Romero-Garcia, S., Hernandez-Bustos, C., Merino, E., Gosset, G. and Martinez, A. (2009). Homolactic fermentation from glucose and cellobiose using Bacillus subtilis. Microbial Cell Factories 8 (1), 23-30..
33. Moon, S. K., Wee, Y. J. and Choi, G. W. (2012). A novel lactic acid bacterium for the production of high purity L-lactic acid, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei CHB2121. Bioscience and Bioengineering 114, 155-159.
34. De-Man, J., Rigosa, M. and Sharpe, M. (1960). A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli. Applied Bacteriology 3, 130-135.
35. Fu, W. and Mathews, A. P. (1999). Lactic acid production from lactose by Lactobacillus plantarum: kinetic model and effect of pH, substrate and oxygen. Biochemical Engineering 3, 163-170.
36. Liu, B., Yang, M., Qi, B., Chen, S., Su, Z. and Wan, Y. (2010). Optimizing L-(+) lactic acid production by thermophile Lactobacillus plantarum As. 1.3 using alternative nitrogen sources with response surface method. Biochemical Engineering 52, 212-219.
37. Akyol, K. S., Gezginc, Y., Dayisoylu, K. S., Ekinci, M. S. and Ozkose E. (2009). Redirection of pyruvate pathway of lactic acid bacteria to improve cheese quality. Food Biotechnology 23, 200-213.
38. Okano, K., Zhang, Q., Shinkawa, S., Yoshida, S., Tanaka, T., Fukuda, H. and Kondo, A. (2009). Efficient production of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch by using genetically modified L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient and α-amylase secreting Lactobacillus plantarum strain. Applied Environmental Microbiology 75, 462-467.
39. Qin, J., Wang, X., Zheng, Z., Ma, C., Tang, H. and Xu, P. (2010). Production of L-lactic acid by a thermophilic Bacillus mutant using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent. Bioresource Technology 101, 7570-7576.
40. Wang, L. M., Zhao, B., Li, F. S., Xu, K., Ma, C. Q., Tao, F., Li, O. G. and Xu, P. (2011). Highly efficient production of D-lactate by Sporolactobacillus sp. CASD with simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis of peanut meal. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 89, 1009-1017.
41. Meng, Y., Xue, Y., Yu, B., Gao, C. and Ma, Y. (2012). Efficient production of L-lactic acid with high optical purity by alkaliphilic Bacillus specie WL-S20. Bioresource Technology 116, 334-339.
42. Tamakawa, H., Ikushima, S., and Yoshida, S. (2012). Efficient production of L -lactic acid from xylose by a recombinant Candida utilis strain. Bioscience and Bioengineering 113 (1), 73-75.
43. Guo, W., Jia, W., Li, Y., and Chen, S. (2010). Performances of Lactobacillus brevis for producing lactic acid from hydrolysate of lignocellulosics. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 161, 124-136.
44. Oshiro, M., Shinto, H. Tashiro, Y. Miwa, N., Segikuchi, T, Okamoto, M., Ishizaki, A. and Sonomoto, K. (2009). Kinetic modelling and sensitivity analysis of xylose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis IO-1. Bioscience and Bioengineering 108, 376-384.
45. Abdel-Rahman, M. A., Tashiro, Y., and Sonomoto, K. (2011). Lactic acid production from lignocellulose-derived sugars using lactic acid bacteria: Overview and limits. Biotechnology 156 (4), 286-301.
46. Beal, C., Louvet, P. and Corrieu, G. (1989). Influence of controlled pH and temperature on the growth and acidification of pure cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus 404 and Lactobacilus bulgaricus 398. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 32, 148-154.
47. Aghababaie, M. Khanahmadi, M., Beheshti, M. and Mirlohi, M. (2011). Temperature and pH optimization for the growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus on whey-based medium using response surface methodology. In The 7th International Chemical Engineering Congress and Exhibition (IChEC 2011). 21-24 November, 2011, Kish, Iran.