American Journal of Mechanics and Applications

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Temporal Dynamic of Soil Erosion and Rainfall Erosivity Within Srou River Basin (Middle Atlas / Morocco)

Soil erosion is a major cause of land degradation worldwide, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In Morocco, soil loss is the most prevalent form of land degradation. The Srou river basin, located in the Middle Atlas Mountains of Morocco, has been greatly affected by soil erosion due to physical and human factors. The basin is characterized by an arid and semi-arid climate, with high temperatures, low rainfall, and flash floods, making it particularly vulnerable to soil erosion. Furthermore, the soil is shallow and lacks proper protection from vegetation cover. Livestock and agriculture, mainly consisting of sheep and goats, are the dominant activities in the area. This study employs the rainfall erosivity index (RI) and GIS techniques to evaluate soil erosion in the Srou river basin during three representative years (1995, 1996, and 2010). The objective is to assess the temporal dynamics of soil erosion and its impact in this region. The results indicate that rainfall is irregular and often characterized by intense showers due to climate change. During wet years, the rainfall erosivity index is high, exceeding 200 in 1996 and 2010, while during the dry season of 1995, it was very low, less than 85.

Soil Erosion, Rainfall Erosivity Index, Srou River Basin, Middle Atlas

APA Style

Ouakhir Hasan, Mohamed El Ghachi. (2023). Temporal Dynamic of Soil Erosion and Rainfall Erosivity Within Srou River Basin (Middle Atlas / Morocco). American Journal of Mechanics and Applications, 11(1), 1-5.

ACS Style

Ouakhir Hasan; Mohamed El Ghachi. Temporal Dynamic of Soil Erosion and Rainfall Erosivity Within Srou River Basin (Middle Atlas / Morocco). Am. J. Mech. Appl. 2023, 11(1), 1-5. doi: 10.11648/j.ajma.20231101.11

AMA Style

Ouakhir Hasan, Mohamed El Ghachi. Temporal Dynamic of Soil Erosion and Rainfall Erosivity Within Srou River Basin (Middle Atlas / Morocco). Am J Mech Appl. 2023;11(1):1-5. doi: 10.11648/j.ajma.20231101.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Ait Haddou, M., Kabbachi, B., Aydda, A., Gougni, H., & Bouchriti, Y. (2020). Spatial and temporal rainfall variability and erosivity: Case of the Issen watershed, SW-Morocco. E3S Web of Conferences, 183, 1–15.
2. Arnoldus H. M. J. (1980). Méthodologie used to determine the maximum potential average soil loss due to sheet and rill erosion in Morrocco, Bulletin F. A. O., 34.
3. Benmansour, M., Mabit, L., Nouira, A., Moussadek, R., Bouksirate, H., Duchemin, M., & Benkdad, A. (2013). Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 115, 97–106.
4. Bonilla, C. A., & Vidal, K. L. (2011). Rainfall erosivity in Central Chile. Journal of Hydrology, 410 (1–2), 126–133.
5. Da Silva, A. M. (2004). Rainfall erosivity map for Brazil. Catena, 57 (3), 251–259.
6. Kalman R. (1967). Le facteur climatique de l’érosion dans le bassin de Sebou. Projet Sebou, Rapp. inédit, 40 p.
7. Legesse, D., Vallet-Coulomb, C., & Gasse, F. (2003). Hydrological response of a catchment to climate and land use changes in Tropical Africa: Case study south central Ethiopia. Journal of Hydrology, 275 (1–2), 67–85.
8. Lu D, Li G, Valladares GS, BatistellaM (2004) Mapping soil erosion risk in Rondônia, Brazilian Amazonia: using RUSLE, remote sensing and GIS. Land Degrad Dev 15 (5): 499–512. 1002/ldr.634
9. Mosaid, H., Barakat, A., Bustillo, V., & Rais, J. (2022). Modelling and Mapping of Soil Water Erosion Risks in the Srou Basin (Middle Atlas, Morocco) Using the EPM Model, GIS and Magnetic Susceptibility. Journal of Landscape Ecology (Czech Republic), 15 (1), 126–147.
10. Moukhchane M (2002) Différentes méthodes d’estimation de l’érosion dans le bassin versant du Nakhla (RifOccidental, Maroc). Bull Res Eros 21: 255–266.
11. Ouakhir, H., Ennaji, N., Goumih, M., Chakir, M., Ghadbane, O., Lahlou, N., Nafia, K., Ouzanni, H., & Ghachi, M. El. (2022). Estimation of soil erosion rate applying the RUSLE model within the El Abid river basin, Central High Atlas, Morocco.
12. Ouakhir, H., El Ghachi, M. Goumih, M., Ennaji, N., (2020). Fluvial Dynamic in Oued El Abid Basin : Monitoring and Quantification at an Upstream River Section in Bin El Ouidane Dam - 2016 / 2017- (Central High Atlas / Morocco) To cite this version : HAL Id : hal-02931241 Fluvial Dynamic in Oued El Abid Basin : M. December.
13. Panagos, P., Borrelli, P., Meusburger, K., Yu, B., Klik, A., Lim, K. J., Yang, J. E., Ni, J., Miao, C., Chattopadhyay, N., Sadeghi, S. H., Hazbavi, Z., Zabihi, M., Larionov, G. A., Krasnov, S. F., Gorobets, A. V., Levi, Y., Erpul, G., Birkel, C., Ballabio, C. (2017). Global rainfall erosivity assessment based on high-temporal resolution rainfall records. Scientific Reports, 7 (1), 1–12.
14. Pimentel D, Burgess M (2013) Soil erosion threatens food production. Agriculture 3 (3): 443–463.
15. Prasannakumar V, Vijith H, Abinod S, Geetha N (2012) Estimation of soil erosion risk within a small mountainous sub-watershed in Kerala, India, using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and geo-information technology. Geosci Front 3 (2): 209–215.
16. Rango A. & Arnoldus H. M. J. (1987). Aménagement des bassins versants. Cahiers techniques de la FAO.
17. Sadiki, A., Bouhlassa, S., & Auajjar, J. (2004). Utilisation d ’ un SIG pour ĺ valuation et la cartographie des risques d rosion par Utilisation d ’ un SIG pour l ’ évaluation et la cartographie des risques d ’ érosion par l ’ Equation universelle des pertes en sol dans le Rif oriental (Maroc) : cas d. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat, Section Sciences de La Terre, 26 (December 2015), 69–79.
18. Tahiri, M., Tabyaoui, H., Tahiri, A., Hadi, H. El, Hammichi, F. El, & Achab, M. (2016). Modelling Soil Erosion and Sedimentation in the Oued Haricha Sub-Basin (Tahaddart Watershed, Western Rif, Morocco): Risk Assessment. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 04 (01), 107–119.
19. Tairi, A., Elmouden, A., Bouchaou, L., & Aboulouafa, M. (2021). Mapping soil erosion–prone sites through GIS and remote sensing for the Tifnout Askaoun watershed, southern Morocco. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14 (9).
20. Tian YC, Zhou YM, Wu BF, Zhou WF (2009) Risk assessment of water soil erosion in upper basin of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China. Environ Geol 57: 937–942.
21. Wischmeier, W. H., Smith, D. D., (1978). Predicting rainfall erosion losses. USDA Agric. Handbk. 537. US Gov. Print. Office, Washington, DC.
22. H. Ouakhir, N. Ennaji2, M. Gomih, M. Chakir, O. Ghadbane, N. Lahlou, K. Nafia, H. Ouzni, M. El Ghachi & S. Halouan “Estimation of soil erosion rate applying the RUSLE model within the El Abid river basin, Central High Atlas, Morocco,” 2022.
23. E. Nadia, O. Hasan, H. Said, and A. Mohamed, “Sediment Transport Index Modelling using the GIS at Small Agricultural Catchment,” pp. 16–20, 2022.
24. J. Estrany, H. Reddad, N. Enaji, H. Ouakhir, and A. Essanbri, J. Fortesa, J. García-Comendador, A. Calsamiglia, M. Elghachi, Y. El Khalkia, B. Alorda, and L. Ferrer. “OPTIMISM Project - Erosion and sediment transport processes : analysis and modelling at different scales in the upstream part of Oum Rabiaa catchment - A case study from the Oued Srou Basin (Middle Atlas - Morocco),” vol. 20, no. December, p. 19760,. 2018.