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Tapping Tools for Gum Arabic and Resins Production: A Review Paper

Gum Arabic and resins production is affected by many factors. Some of these factors biotic and others are non-biotic. The most important non-biotic factor is the tapping of the tree. However, tapping should be done properly in a way which does not harm the tree health. The purpose of this paper is to review and document tapping tools for gum Arabic and resins production. The most efficient and recommended tapping tool nowadays is Sonki compared with the traditional axe (Farrar). The Sonki was developed by the Gum Arabic Research Division (GRD) in Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) and it was considered as efficient and effective and cheap tapping tool. It could be locally manufactured and easily adopted by the gum tappers in the gum belt of Sudan. It is reported that it is multi-function tool where it could be used for tapping the tree and harvesting the gum. Sonki does not record any negative effect on the tree health. On the other hand, it does not show any danger to the producers or the workers. It is worth to mention that it could be easily used by women and teenage. The Sonki is socially accepted, economically feasible and environmentally safe. Recently, the Sonki was adopted for training by international organizations such as IFAD, FAO, WFP and many other local and national organizations. Accordingly, it is said that it is the best and appropriate tool to be used for tapping Acacia senegal trees across gum belt in Sudan. Other tools such as Mengaf is widely used for resin production and axe for talha gum production. The review revealed that Acacia senegal is tapped by three tools where Sonki is the only recommended one. Acacia seyal is tapped by four tools, where Axe is the most common one, however, no significant difference recorded between the four in term of productivity. Acacia polycantha is tapped by three tools in which Farrar is the most common. For resins production, Boswellia papyrifera tree is tapped by Mengaf while Sterculia setigera tree is tapped by both Mengaf and Sumbok.

Gum Production, Resins, Acacia senegal, Tapping, Frankincense, Karaya Gum, Sudan, Ethiopia

APA Style

Muneer Elyas Siddig Eltahir, Kamal Eldin Mohamed Fadl, Mohammed Adam Abbas Hamad, Ahmed Ismail Ahmed Safi, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed Elamin, et al. (2023). Tapping Tools for Gum Arabic and Resins Production: A Review Paper. American Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 8(3), 33-40.

ACS Style

Muneer Elyas Siddig Eltahir; Kamal Eldin Mohamed Fadl; Mohammed Adam Abbas Hamad; Ahmed Ismail Ahmed Safi; Hatim Mohamed Ahmed Elamin, et al. Tapping Tools for Gum Arabic and Resins Production: A Review Paper. Am. J. Eng. Technol. Manag. 2023, 8(3), 33-40. doi: 10.11648/j.ajetm.20230803.12

AMA Style

Muneer Elyas Siddig Eltahir, Kamal Eldin Mohamed Fadl, Mohammed Adam Abbas Hamad, Ahmed Ismail Ahmed Safi, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed Elamin, et al. Tapping Tools for Gum Arabic and Resins Production: A Review Paper. Am J Eng Technol Manag. 2023;8(3):33-40. doi: 10.11648/j.ajetm.20230803.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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