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Research Article |

Mapping Potential Anopheles stephensi Habitats for Implementing “Seek and Destroy” Malaria Larval Source Management in Kwale County, Kenya

We will reveal specific locations of potential habitats of Anopheles stephensi, a new and invasive malaria vector, in Kwale, Kenya. Previous regression models have not been able to locate specific habitats of this malaria vector in Kenya. This publication seeks to determine locations of potential artificial water container habitats of An. stephensi via remote visual detection and determine geo-ecological factors that are associated with those habitats. The preliminary signature mapping of potential habitats was done by obtaining GPS coordinates of potential, capture point, sentinel site locations through visual remote sensing of artificial water containers using Google Earth. Using a second-order eigenfunction, eigendecomposition, spatial filter algorithm to determine clustering propensities or non-propensities of those mapped potential capture point, sentinel site larval habitats, we were able to eco-cartographically distinguish hot and cold spots on stratified, georeferenced, Land Use Land Cover (LULC) polygons, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) map within ArcGIS Pro. The results showed that there was a strong tendency towards clustering (Moran’s I=0.67, p<0.001) and potential habitat hotspots were more likely to occur in urban classified LULC, grid-stratified areas (51.28% and 46.15% of the hotspot locations were in urban commercial and urban residential land covers respectively). Moreover, the georeferenced hotspot locations of potential habitats were found at higher elevations than the coldspots (409.1± 6.112m vs 379.5 ± 21.51m) and the hotspot habitats were closely associated with soil and low vegetation (mean NDVI=0.121 ± 0.0661). When faced with this new vector, these ecological variables can be employed to spatially target and prioritize potential habitats for implementing “Seek and Destroy” larval source management programs.

Anopheles stephensi, Artificial Containers, Eigendecomposition Kwale, Kenya

APA Style

Isabelle Burnett, A., Izurieta, R., Hoare, I., Choudhari, N., Casanova, J., et al. (2023). Mapping Potential Anopheles stephensi Habitats for Implementing “Seek and Destroy” Malaria Larval Source Management in Kwale County, Kenya. American Journal of Entomology, 7(4), 120-129.

ACS Style

Isabelle Burnett, A.; Izurieta, R.; Hoare, I.; Choudhari, N.; Casanova, J., et al. Mapping Potential Anopheles stephensi Habitats for Implementing “Seek and Destroy” Malaria Larval Source Management in Kwale County, Kenya. Am. J. Entomol. 2023, 7(4), 120-129. doi: 10.11648/j.aje.20230704.11

AMA Style

Isabelle Burnett A, Izurieta R, Hoare I, Choudhari N, Casanova J, et al. Mapping Potential Anopheles stephensi Habitats for Implementing “Seek and Destroy” Malaria Larval Source Management in Kwale County, Kenya. Am J Entomol. 2023;7(4):120-129. doi: 10.11648/j.aje.20230704.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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