American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry

Archive

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Product Quality and an Assessment of a Chemical Formulation for an Insulator

Materials can be insulators, semiconductors or conductors based on their ability to conduct electrical and thermal current. An insulator is a substance that retard and block the flow of thermal and electrical current, it’s a poor conductor and a non-conducting material. Insulator material include rock wool, mineral wool, fiberglass, and cork. Conductors are materials that conduct electrical and thermal current such as metals, copper, zinc, gold, silver…etc. Semiconductors are a different class of materials that have conductivity between insulators and conductors, silicon, germanium…etc. The objective is to find the reason behind the off gassing of the finished product at high temperatures and if sprayed with water for cooling purposes and suggest methods to minimize its off- gassing to improve its quality. It has been found that some chemical compounds in the current formulation are either hygroscopic, extremely soluble or are reactive towards other chemical compounds in the formulation. Soluble starch, ammonium sulfate and boric acid are water soluble chemical compounds having hygroscopic properties. It isn’t recommended the usage of starch, and ammonium sulfate in the current formulation. Treating ammonium sulfate with water would result in the formation of ammonia gas, and there is high possibility of the reaction of starch with boric acid when exposed to water increasing its acidity. It’s recommended the use of other insoluble chemical compounds, antimony III oxide or zinc borate and the more branched Dextrins instead.

Insulator, Finished Product, Product Quality, Off-Gassing

APA Style

Hebah Abdel-Wahab, Tamara Gund. (2023). Product Quality and an Assessment of a Chemical Formulation for an Insulator. American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry, 7(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajaic.20230701.11

ACS Style

Hebah Abdel-Wahab; Tamara Gund. Product Quality and an Assessment of a Chemical Formulation for an Insulator. Am. J. Appl. Ind. Chem. 2023, 7(1), 1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaic.20230701.11

AMA Style

Hebah Abdel-Wahab, Tamara Gund. Product Quality and an Assessment of a Chemical Formulation for an Insulator. Am J Appl Ind Chem. 2023;7(1):1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaic.20230701.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Kuphaldt, T., 2002, “Conductors and Insulators”, https://www.magcraft.com/. Accessed 15 February 2023.
2. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, “Insulator”, 25 October 2022, https://en.wikipedia.org/. Retrieved 13 December, 2022.
3. Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "insulator". Encyclopedia Britannica, 19 Jan. 2018, https://www.britannica.com/science/insulator. Accessed 13 December 2022.
4. Euroguarco. (May 19, 2015), “Fibrous Insulating Materials”, http://www.euroguarco.com/en/insulation/20_10_10. Accessed 13 December 2022.
5. Energy.gov. (May 19, 2015), “Insulation Materials’, http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/insulation-materials, Accessed 13 December 2022.
6. Rothon, R., DeArmitt, C., Brydson's Plastics Materials, 8th edition, Elsevier Ltd., 2017, Pages 169-204.
7. CMI, Experience, Innovation, Commitment, “Electrical Insulator Materials”, 4 October 2018, https://custommaterials.com/. Accessed 13 December 2022.
8. Chemical Safety Facts.org, “Fire Retardants”, 14 October 2022, https://www.chemicalsafetyfacts.org/. Accessed 6 February 6, 2023.
9. ChemBK, Powerful Online Chemical Database for PC, Pad and Phone, 14 December 2022, https://www.chembk.com/en. Accessed 13 February 6, 2023.
10. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, “Ammonium sulfate”, 2022. Retrieved December 8, 2022 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
11. ChemSpider, Search and share Chemistry, “Boric Acid”, 2022. Retrieved December 8, 2022 from http://www.chemspider.com/
12. Nakajima, Hajime & Dijkstra, Peter & Loos, Katja. (2017). The Recent Developments in Biobased Polymers toward General and Engineering Applications: Polymers that are Upgraded from Biodegradable Polymers, Analogous to Petroleum-Derived Polymers, and Newly Developed. Polymers. 9. 523. 10.3390/polym9100523.
13. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, “Starch”, November 2022. Retrieved December 8, 2022 from https://en.wikipedia.org/
14. American Elements, the advanced materials manufacturer, “Ammonium Poly-phosphate”, 2022. Retrieved December 8, 2022 from www.americanelements.com.
15. Patzek, Tad. (2008). A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production From Soybean. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. 29. 10.1177/0270467609334022.
16. Chemistry Explained, foundation and applications, “Fiber”, 2022. Retrieved on December 8, 2022 from http://www.chemistryexplained.com/
17. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, “Ammonium Sulfate”, 27 October 2022, https://en.wikipedia.org. Accessed 13 December 2022.
18. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, “Boric Acid”, 8 December 2022, https://en.wikipedia.org. Accessed 15 December 2022.
19. Seiler, H. G., H. Sigel and A. Sigel (eds.). Handbook on the Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1988, p. 131.
20. O'Neil, M. J. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 2006, p. 218.
21. Thechemicalcompany, Global Bonds in Chemistry, “Boric Acid”, 2022, https://thechemco.com/. Accessed 15 December 2022.
22. Washington University, “Table of Acid and Base Strength”, 2022, https://depts.washington.edu/eooptic/links/acidstrength.html. Accessed 15 December 2022.
23. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
24. Mendham, J.; Denney, R. C.; Barnes, J. D.; Thomas, M. J. K. (2000), Vogel's Quantitative Chemical Analysis (6th ed.), New York: Prentice Hall, p. 357, ISBN 0-582-22628-7.
25. Vedantu, “Boric Acid”, 2022, https://www.vedantu.com/. Accessed 15 December 2022.
26. Chemical Book, “Meta-boric Acid”, 2022, https://www.chemicalbook.com/. Accessed 15 December 2022.
27. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, “Boron Tri-oxide”, 10 August 2022, https://en.wikipedia.org. Accessed 15 December 2022.
28. Smith, B. D. and Hughes, M. P. (2001). Boric Acid. In Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, (Ed.). https://doi.org/10.1002/047084289X.rb242
29. Britannica, “Starch”, 2022, https://www.britannica.com/science/starch. Accessed 23 January 2023.
30. Leach HW. Gelatinization of starch. In: Whistler RL, Paschall EF, editors. Starch: Chemistry and Technology. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press; 1965. p. 20.
31. Flame Retardants, “APP”, 2022, http://fr.polymerinsights.com/fr-types/phosphorous/app. Accessed 23 January 2023.
32. Ref Weil, E. D., Levchik, S. V. Flame retardants for plastics and textiles, p. 16. Hanser Publishers, Munich, Germany, 2009.
33. Maurer et al., (May 7, 1985), “Activated Ammonium Polyphosphate, a process of making it and its use”, 4515632, United States Patent, https://worldwide.espacenet.com/. Accessed 25 January 2023.
34. Bourbigot, S.; Le Bras, M. Intumescence flame retardants and char formation, p. 139 f, in Troitzsch, J. Ed. Plastics flammability handbook, 3rd Ed., Hanser Publishers, Munich, 2004.
35. Poth U (2001). "Drying Oils and Related Products". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi: 10.1002/14356007.a09_055. ISBN 3527306730.
36. Nutrition Data, "Oil, soybean, salad or cooking Nutrition Facts & Calories". www.nutritiondata.com. Archived from the original on 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2023-1-25.
37. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, “Soybean Oil”, 2022, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soybean_oil. Accessed 25 January 2023.
38. Textile Apex, A Guide to Textile and Clothing, “General and Physical Properties of Fibres”, 2023, https://textileapex.blogspot.com/. Accessed 30 January 2023.
39. Kadolph, Sara J., and Langford, Anna L. (2001). Textiles. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
40. Snyder, Carl H. (1998). The Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things, 3rd edition. New York: John Wiley.
41. Warner, Steven B. (1995). Fiber Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
42. Yang, H. H. (1993). Kevlar Aramid Fiber. New York: John Wiley.
43. A. Emblem, M. Hardwidge, 16 - Adhesives for packaging, Packaging Technology, Woodhead Publishing, 2012, Pages 381-394, ISBN 9781845696658.
44. Seneye, 4 June 2018, “What is ammonia NH3 & NH4?”, https://answers.seneye.com/. Accessed 15 February 2023.
45. National Center for Biotechnology Information (2023). PubChem Compound Summary for CID 6097028, Ammonium Sulfate. Retrieved February 22, 2023 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Ammonium-Sulfate.
46. Eltaboni F, Alabidi A. Physical and chemical modifications of starches. In: Proceeding of 2nd Libya Conference on Chemistry and its Applications (LCCA-2); 9–11 May 2017; Benghazi, Libya: University of Benghazi, LCCA-2; 2017. pp. 120-123.
47. BeMiller, J., N, Chapter 19 - Corn Starch Modification, (Third Edition), AACC International Press, 2019, Pages 537-549, ISBN 9780128119716.