Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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Trust Requirements Model for Developing Acceptable Autonomous Car

Received: 19 June 2018    Accepted:     Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract

There has been an increase interest among automakers to develop autonomous cars. However, the level of acceptance of the autonomous cars among users is limited. Considering that trust is one of the main determinants for users to accept the autonomous cars. Considering that user’s needs and expectation are highly important when developing the autonomous car, a trust requirements model that consists of attributes and related properties based on the perspectives of the users has been developed. The model was also developed based on the proposition that automakers need to consider trust requirements at the early stage of developing the autonomous car. Drawn from a systematic analysis of the literature review, seven attributes, namely safety, security, privacy, performance, user’s experience, reliability and economic value together with their related properties were identified. It was also found that there is a one-to-many relationship between the attribute and its properties. This model, named as trust requirements autonomous car (TReAC) model can be used as guideline for automakers to develop acceptable autonomous cars. It is anticipated that this model can be adaptable to other domain. Future work should be dedicated to validating and testing this model.

DOI 10.11648/j.jeee.20180602.14
Published in Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (Volume 6, Issue 2, April 2018)
Page(s) 59-64
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Autonomous Car, Trust Requirements, TReAC Model, User Acceptable

References
[1] NHSTSA, “Automated Vehicle for safety,” 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.nhtsa.gov/technology-innovation/automated-vehicles-safety.
[2] G. M. Fitch, D. S. Bowman, and R. E. Llaneras, “Human Factors : The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society,” 2014.
[3] M. A. Nees, “Acceptance of Self-driving Cars,” Proc. Hum. Factors Ergon. Soc. Annu. Meet., vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 1449-1453, 2016.
[4] C. Basu and M. Singhal, “Trust Dynamics in Human Autonomous Vehicle Interaction : A Review of Trust Models,” 2016 AAAI Spring Symp. Ser., pp. 85-91, 2016.
[5] S. Robertson, “Mastering the Requirements Process Second Edition,” Work, p. 15, 2006.
[6] M. Cunningham and M. A. Regan, “Autonomous Vehicles : Human Factors Issues and Future Research,” Australas. Road Saf. Conf., 2015.
[7] H. Abraham, C. Lee, S. Brady, C. Fitzgerald, B. Mehler, B. Reimer, and J. F. Coughlin, “Autonomous Vehicles, Trust, and Driving Alternatives: A survey of consumer preferences,” Massachusetts Inst. Technol. AgeLab, no. May, pp. 1-16, 2016.
[8] E. Fredrick, J. Mikael, and S. Jana, “Creating Appropriate Trust for Autonomous Vehicle Systems: A Framework for Human-Machine Interaction Design,” 95th Annu. Meet. Transp. Res. Board, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2017.
[9] D.-H. S. Jae-Gil Lee, Ki Joon Kim, Sangwon Lee and Sangwon Lee, “Can Autonomous Vehicles Be Safe and Trustworthy? Effects of Appearance and Autonomy of Unmanned Driving Systems,” Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact., 2015.
[10] I. Pettersson and I. C. M. Karlsson, “Setting the stage for autonomous cars: a pilot study of future autonomous driving experiences.,” IET Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 694-701, 2015.
[11] G. Khurana, S., Chandna, A., & Batra, “How much human do we need in a car? The evolution of artificial intelligence and the acceptance of autonomous vehicles.,” EYGM Limited., 2016.
[12] H. Reese, “Updated: Autonomous driving levels 0 to 5: Understanding the differences The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration adopted the Society of Automotive Engineers’ levels for automated driving systems, ranging from complete driver control to full aut,” techrepublic, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.techrepublic.com/article/autonomous-driving-levels-0-to-5-understanding-the-differences/.
[13] & Flemisch, F., Kaussner, A., Petermann, I., Schieben, A. and N. Schöming, “HAVE-IT. Highly automated vehicles for intelligent transport. Validation of concept on optimum task repartition,” Regensburg, Ger. Cont. Automot. Gmb H., 2011.
[14] G. H. Walker, N. A. Stanton, and M. S. Young, “Where Is Computing Driving Cars ?,” vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 203-229, 2001.
[15] N. A. Stanton, M. S. Young, N. A. Stanton, M. S. Young, and H. Guy, “The psychology of driving automation : A discussion with Professor Don Norman,” no. January, 2016.
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  • APA Style

    Halimaton Hakimi, Massila Kamalrudin, Safiah Sidek, Suriati Akmal. (2018). Trust Requirements Model for Developing Acceptable Autonomous Car. Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 6(2), 59-64. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jeee.20180602.14

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    ACS Style

    Halimaton Hakimi; Massila Kamalrudin; Safiah Sidek; Suriati Akmal. Trust Requirements Model for Developing Acceptable Autonomous Car. J. Electr. Electron. Eng. 2018, 6(2), 59-64. doi: 10.11648/j.jeee.20180602.14

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    AMA Style

    Halimaton Hakimi, Massila Kamalrudin, Safiah Sidek, Suriati Akmal. Trust Requirements Model for Developing Acceptable Autonomous Car. J Electr Electron Eng. 2018;6(2):59-64. doi: 10.11648/j.jeee.20180602.14

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  • @article{10.11648/j.jeee.20180602.14,
      author = {Halimaton Hakimi and Massila Kamalrudin and Safiah Sidek and Suriati Akmal},
      title = {Trust Requirements Model for Developing Acceptable Autonomous Car},
      journal = {Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {59-64},
      doi = {10.11648/j.jeee.20180602.14},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jeee.20180602.14},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.jeee.20180602.14},
      abstract = {There has been an increase interest among automakers to develop autonomous cars. However, the level of acceptance of the autonomous cars among users is limited. Considering that trust is one of the main determinants for users to accept the autonomous cars. Considering that user’s needs and expectation are highly important when developing the autonomous car, a trust requirements model that consists of attributes and related properties based on the perspectives of the users has been developed. The model was also developed based on the proposition that automakers need to consider trust requirements at the early stage of developing the autonomous car. Drawn from a systematic analysis of the literature review, seven attributes, namely safety, security, privacy, performance, user’s experience, reliability and economic value together with their related properties were identified. It was also found that there is a one-to-many relationship between the attribute and its properties. This model, named as trust requirements autonomous car (TReAC) model can be used as guideline for automakers to develop acceptable autonomous cars. It is anticipated that this model can be adaptable to other domain. Future work should be dedicated to validating and testing this model.},
     year = {2018}
    }
    

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    AU  - Halimaton Hakimi
    AU  - Massila Kamalrudin
    AU  - Safiah Sidek
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    JO  - Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
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    AB  - There has been an increase interest among automakers to develop autonomous cars. However, the level of acceptance of the autonomous cars among users is limited. Considering that trust is one of the main determinants for users to accept the autonomous cars. Considering that user’s needs and expectation are highly important when developing the autonomous car, a trust requirements model that consists of attributes and related properties based on the perspectives of the users has been developed. The model was also developed based on the proposition that automakers need to consider trust requirements at the early stage of developing the autonomous car. Drawn from a systematic analysis of the literature review, seven attributes, namely safety, security, privacy, performance, user’s experience, reliability and economic value together with their related properties were identified. It was also found that there is a one-to-many relationship between the attribute and its properties. This model, named as trust requirements autonomous car (TReAC) model can be used as guideline for automakers to develop acceptable autonomous cars. It is anticipated that this model can be adaptable to other domain. Future work should be dedicated to validating and testing this model.
    VL  - 6
    IS  - 2
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Melaka, Malaysia

  • Innovative Software System and Services Group, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Melaka, Malaysia

  • Institute of Technology Management and Entrepreneurship, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Melaka, Malaysia

  • Innovative Software System and Services Group, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Melaka, Malaysia

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