International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

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Management of Complex Facial Keloid -- A Review of the Literature

Received: Apr. 07, 2023    Accepted: Apr. 28, 2023    Published: Jun. 06, 2023
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Abstract

Purpose: Keloids are noncontagious, pathologic, irregular deposits of collagen within an injured area and its boundaries. Only a few publications have described treatment of facial keloids, and there is obvious inconsistency regarding the treatment of facial keloids, specifically due to the high rate of recurrence and patient’s expectation of the results. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature review for more than 35 articles to draw attention to the management and treatment of facial keloids. Results: There are several surgical techniques for managing facial keloids. First involves simple surgical excision. Second strategy involves surgical excision of the keloid within the margin of the lesion, leaving keloid at the periphery to avoid violating the healthy tissue thus minimizing the recurrence. The third strategy involves simple surgical excision of the keloid followed by radiotherapy which appears to be the most effective treatment of the keloids. A fourth technique involves simple surgical excision of the keloid followed by steroid injection. A fifth technique involves excision of the keloid and using the keloid skin for resurfacing or as a skin flap to cover the surgical defect followed by HBO treatment. A sixth technique involves excision of the keloid followed by using Cryopreserved Placental Membrane. There are also non-surgical strategies to manage keloids. The first involves Intralesional injection with a mixture of 5-fluorouracil and Betamethasone and the second involves hydration and compression therapy. Conclusions: Facial keloids are very difficult to manage. In addition, they may develop complications including infections. It is imperative to make all attempts to prevent keloid formation, as the management regardless of modality, often leads to recurrence.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijcoms.20230901.12
Published in International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery ( Volume 9, Issue 1, June 2023 )
Page(s) 4-8
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Keloids, Keloid Treatment, Keloid Radiotherapy, Facial Scars

References
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  • APA Style

    Yousef Alshamrani, Fawaz Alotaibi, Yoh Sawatari, Abdulrahman Hesham. (2023). Management of Complex Facial Keloid -- A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 9(1), 4-8. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijcoms.20230901.12

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    ACS Style

    Yousef Alshamrani; Fawaz Alotaibi; Yoh Sawatari; Abdulrahman Hesham. Management of Complex Facial Keloid -- A Review of the Literature. Int. J. Clin. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 2023, 9(1), 4-8. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcoms.20230901.12

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    AMA Style

    Yousef Alshamrani, Fawaz Alotaibi, Yoh Sawatari, Abdulrahman Hesham. Management of Complex Facial Keloid -- A Review of the Literature. Int J Clin Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2023;9(1):4-8. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcoms.20230901.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijcoms.20230901.12,
      author = {Yousef Alshamrani and Fawaz Alotaibi and Yoh Sawatari and Abdulrahman Hesham},
      title = {Management of Complex Facial Keloid -- A Review of the Literature},
      journal = {International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4-8},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijcoms.20230901.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijcoms.20230901.12},
      eprint = {https://download.sciencepg.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijcoms.20230901.12},
      abstract = {Purpose: Keloids are noncontagious, pathologic, irregular deposits of collagen within an injured area and its boundaries. Only a few publications have described treatment of facial keloids, and there is obvious inconsistency regarding the treatment of facial keloids, specifically due to the high rate of recurrence and patient’s expectation of the results. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature review for more than 35 articles to draw attention to the management and treatment of facial keloids. Results: There are several surgical techniques for managing facial keloids. First involves simple surgical excision. Second strategy involves surgical excision of the keloid within the margin of the lesion, leaving keloid at the periphery to avoid violating the healthy tissue thus minimizing the recurrence. The third strategy involves simple surgical excision of the keloid followed by radiotherapy which appears to be the most effective treatment of the keloids. A fourth technique involves simple surgical excision of the keloid followed by steroid injection. A fifth technique involves excision of the keloid and using the keloid skin for resurfacing or as a skin flap to cover the surgical defect followed by HBO treatment. A sixth technique involves excision of the keloid followed by using Cryopreserved Placental Membrane. There are also non-surgical strategies to manage keloids. The first involves Intralesional injection with a mixture of 5-fluorouracil and Betamethasone and the second involves hydration and compression therapy. Conclusions: Facial keloids are very difficult to manage. In addition, they may develop complications including infections. It is imperative to make all attempts to prevent keloid formation, as the management regardless of modality, often leads to recurrence.},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - Management of Complex Facial Keloid -- A Review of the Literature
    AU  - Yousef Alshamrani
    AU  - Fawaz Alotaibi
    AU  - Yoh Sawatari
    AU  - Abdulrahman Hesham
    Y1  - 2023/06/06
    PY  - 2023
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijcoms.20230901.12
    DO  - 10.11648/j.ijcoms.20230901.12
    T2  - International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
    JF  - International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
    JO  - International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
    SP  - 4
    EP  - 8
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2472-1344
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijcoms.20230901.12
    AB  - Purpose: Keloids are noncontagious, pathologic, irregular deposits of collagen within an injured area and its boundaries. Only a few publications have described treatment of facial keloids, and there is obvious inconsistency regarding the treatment of facial keloids, specifically due to the high rate of recurrence and patient’s expectation of the results. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature review for more than 35 articles to draw attention to the management and treatment of facial keloids. Results: There are several surgical techniques for managing facial keloids. First involves simple surgical excision. Second strategy involves surgical excision of the keloid within the margin of the lesion, leaving keloid at the periphery to avoid violating the healthy tissue thus minimizing the recurrence. The third strategy involves simple surgical excision of the keloid followed by radiotherapy which appears to be the most effective treatment of the keloids. A fourth technique involves simple surgical excision of the keloid followed by steroid injection. A fifth technique involves excision of the keloid and using the keloid skin for resurfacing or as a skin flap to cover the surgical defect followed by HBO treatment. A sixth technique involves excision of the keloid followed by using Cryopreserved Placental Membrane. There are also non-surgical strategies to manage keloids. The first involves Intralesional injection with a mixture of 5-fluorouracil and Betamethasone and the second involves hydration and compression therapy. Conclusions: Facial keloids are very difficult to manage. In addition, they may develop complications including infections. It is imperative to make all attempts to prevent keloid formation, as the management regardless of modality, often leads to recurrence.
    VL  - 9
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, LSU Health Science Centre Shreveport, Shreveport, USA

  • Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, LSU Health Science Centre Shreveport, Shreveport, USA

  • Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, USA

  • Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, USA

  • Section