Animal and Veterinary Sciences

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Effect of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Eggshell Meal on Bone Parameters, Organ Weights and By-products of Growing West African Dwarf Goats

Received: 2 April 2016    Accepted: 6 April 2016    Published: 4 June 2016
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Abstract

A 12 week trial was conducted to investigate the effect of incorporating eggshell meal (ESM) at graded levels into the diets of West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks as a calcium source. Bone strength as well as other bone measurements, organ and by-products weights were evaluated. Twenty (20) WAD bucks weighing 5.7kg on the average were caged individually inside a conventional open-sided house. The bucks were randomly divided into four (4) groups, each group consisting of five (5) animals. The animals in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were provided with diets containing 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% ESM respectively with group 1 serving as the control. The animals were given known quantity of supplementary feed, forage (Andropogon gayanus corn) and water between 8 and 9am every morning. Two animals were randomly selected from each group and slaughtered for carcass analysis after which a pair of their femur bones was removed for bone measurements and strength test using the Universal testing machine. Results showed that increase in the level of ESM inclusion across treatments yielded significant variability (P<0.05) on the bones Nominal diameter, Actual Length, Gauge Length and Breaking strength. The Weight of the bones also varied significantly (P<0.01) but non-significant difference was observed on Area of the bones. The organ weights (Heart, Liver, Kidney, Lungs and Spleen) did not show significant variability (P>0.05) across treatments. The horns weight varied significantly (P<0.05) but the other by-products weights (Hooves, Gastro intestinal tract full and empty as well as Abdominal fats) did not vary significantly (P>0.05) across the treatments. It was therefore concluded that growing WAD bucks can tolerate the inclusion of 1.5% properly sterilized ESM in their diet as source of Ca with no detrimental effect on bone parameters, organ and By-products weights.

DOI 10.11648/j.avs.s.2016040301.13
Published in Animal and Veterinary Sciences (Volume 4, Issue 3-1, June 2016)

This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Science and Climate Change

Page(s) 13-17
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Eggshell Meal, Bone Strength, Organ Weight, By-products, Goat

References
[1] Aduku A.O and Olukosi J. O(2002). Nigeria egg Industry, egg Composition and Market Quality of eggs in Animal Product, Processing and Handling in the Tropics. Living Books Series, Gu Publication. Pp. 101-103.
[2] Bawala,T.O. & Akinsoyinu, A.O. (2002). Nutritional evaluation of browsers, Glyricidal sepium and Ficus thoningii foliage in goat diet: Energy utilization and requirement. Proceedings of the 37th Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria. (ASAN) held at University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria. pp 174-176.
[3] Favus, M.J. (2002). Intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. In: Coe FL, Favus MJ (editors.) Disorders of Bone Mineral Metabolism, 2nd edition. Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 48–73.
[4] Gongruttananun, N. (2011). Effects of Using Eggshell Waste as a Calcium Source in the Diet of Rhode Island Red Roosters on Semen Quality, Gonadal Development, Plasma Calcium and Bone Status. Kasetsart Journal (National Science) 45 : 413 - 421.
[5] Ifatimehim O.O, Musa, S.D. and Adeyemi J.O. (2011), Managing Land use transformation and land surface temperature change in Anyigba Town, Kogi State. Nigeria Journal of geography and geology, 3(1):77-85.
[6] Iheukwumere F.I. and Emenalon O.O. (2004). Effect of early protein and energy restriction of large Turkey toms fed high fat or low fat re-alimentation diet. Journal of Poultry Science. Vol. 69, pp 974- 981.
[7] Klasing, K.C., (1998). Comparative Avian Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. Pp 238-248.
[8] Mc Donald, R.A., Edward, H.F., Greenhalgh, J.F.D. and Morgan, C.A. (1998). Animal Nutrition. Longman London Pp 94-94, 513-516.
[9] Moreki, J. C. (2005) The Influence of Calcium intake by Broiler Breeders on Bone Development and Egg Characteristics. PhD thesis submitted to the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, Republic of South Africa. Pp 93-119.
[10] Neumann, C and Haris, D.M. (1999). Contribution of Animal sources foods in improving diet quality for children in the developing world. The World Bank. Washington. DC.
[11] Nuhu, H. (2015) Effect of Different Levels of Eggshell Meal and Bone Meal on the Haematological and Carcass characteristics of Broilers. Report of a research project carried out in the department of Animal Production and submitted to the department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State University, Anyigba in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Agriculture. Pp 15-18.
[12] Okoruwa, M. I and Adewumi, M. K (2010). Effect of replacing Panicum maximum with dried pineapple pulp on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of West African dwarf sheep. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science. Vol. 32: pp 108-115.
[13] Tumova, E., Skrivanova, V., Zita, L., Skrivan, M. and Fucikova .A. (2004).Effect of Restriction on Digestibility of Nutrient, Organ growth and Blood Picture in Broiler and Rabbit. In the Proceedings of 8th World Rabbit Congregation Puebla, Mexico, WRSA. pp 1008-1014
[14] Zhang, B. and Coon, C.N. (1997).The relationship of various tibia bone measurements in hens. Poultry Science journal vol. 76: pp 1698- 1701.
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    Ode C.O., Addass P. A., Dim N. I. (2016). Effect of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Eggshell Meal on Bone Parameters, Organ Weights and By-products of Growing West African Dwarf Goats. Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 4(3-1), 13-17. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.avs.s.2016040301.13

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    ACS Style

    Ode C.O.; Addass P. A.; Dim N. I. Effect of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Eggshell Meal on Bone Parameters, Organ Weights and By-products of Growing West African Dwarf Goats. Anim. Vet. Sci. 2016, 4(3-1), 13-17. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.s.2016040301.13

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    AMA Style

    Ode C.O., Addass P. A., Dim N. I. Effect of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Eggshell Meal on Bone Parameters, Organ Weights and By-products of Growing West African Dwarf Goats. Anim Vet Sci. 2016;4(3-1):13-17. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.s.2016040301.13

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  • @article{10.11648/j.avs.s.2016040301.13,
      author = {Ode C.O. and Addass P. A. and Dim N. I},
      title = {Effect of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Eggshell Meal on Bone Parameters, Organ Weights and By-products of Growing West African Dwarf Goats},
      journal = {Animal and Veterinary Sciences},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3-1},
      pages = {13-17},
      doi = {10.11648/j.avs.s.2016040301.13},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.avs.s.2016040301.13},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.avs.s.2016040301.13},
      abstract = {A 12 week trial was conducted to investigate the effect of incorporating eggshell meal (ESM) at graded levels into the diets of West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks as a calcium source. Bone strength as well as other bone measurements, organ and by-products weights were evaluated. Twenty (20) WAD bucks weighing 5.7kg on the average were caged individually inside a conventional open-sided house. The bucks were randomly divided into four (4) groups, each group consisting of five (5) animals. The animals in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were provided with diets containing 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% ESM respectively with group 1 serving as the control. The animals were given known quantity of supplementary feed, forage (Andropogon gayanus corn) and water between 8 and 9am every morning. Two animals were randomly selected from each group and slaughtered for carcass analysis after which a pair of their femur bones was removed for bone measurements and strength test using the Universal testing machine. Results showed that increase in the level of ESM inclusion across treatments yielded significant variability (P<0.05) on the bones Nominal diameter, Actual Length, Gauge Length and Breaking strength. The Weight of the bones also varied significantly (P<0.01) but non-significant difference was observed on Area of the bones. The organ weights (Heart, Liver, Kidney, Lungs and Spleen) did not show significant variability (P>0.05) across treatments. The horns weight varied significantly (P<0.05) but the other by-products weights (Hooves, Gastro intestinal tract full and empty as well as Abdominal fats) did not vary significantly (P>0.05) across the treatments. It was therefore concluded that growing WAD bucks can tolerate the inclusion of 1.5% properly sterilized ESM in their diet as source of Ca with no detrimental effect on bone parameters, organ and By-products weights.},
     year = {2016}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
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    AB  - A 12 week trial was conducted to investigate the effect of incorporating eggshell meal (ESM) at graded levels into the diets of West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks as a calcium source. Bone strength as well as other bone measurements, organ and by-products weights were evaluated. Twenty (20) WAD bucks weighing 5.7kg on the average were caged individually inside a conventional open-sided house. The bucks were randomly divided into four (4) groups, each group consisting of five (5) animals. The animals in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were provided with diets containing 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% ESM respectively with group 1 serving as the control. The animals were given known quantity of supplementary feed, forage (Andropogon gayanus corn) and water between 8 and 9am every morning. Two animals were randomly selected from each group and slaughtered for carcass analysis after which a pair of their femur bones was removed for bone measurements and strength test using the Universal testing machine. Results showed that increase in the level of ESM inclusion across treatments yielded significant variability (P<0.05) on the bones Nominal diameter, Actual Length, Gauge Length and Breaking strength. The Weight of the bones also varied significantly (P<0.01) but non-significant difference was observed on Area of the bones. The organ weights (Heart, Liver, Kidney, Lungs and Spleen) did not show significant variability (P>0.05) across treatments. The horns weight varied significantly (P<0.05) but the other by-products weights (Hooves, Gastro intestinal tract full and empty as well as Abdominal fats) did not vary significantly (P>0.05) across the treatments. It was therefore concluded that growing WAD bucks can tolerate the inclusion of 1.5% properly sterilized ESM in their diet as source of Ca with no detrimental effect on bone parameters, organ and By-products weights.
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Author Information
  • Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

  • Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

  • Department of Animal Breeding and Physiology, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

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