Breast Cancer: Clinical and Pathological Study at Lubumbashi and Kinshasa University Hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 2014 to 2015
International Journal of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Research
Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2017, Pages: 141-148
Received: Aug. 27, 2017; Accepted: Sep. 21, 2017; Published: Jan. 3, 2018
Views 1462      Downloads 84
Nday Guy, Surgery Department, University Hospital of Lubumbashi, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
Kabamba Michel, Department of Public Health, University of Kamina, Kamina, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mukalay Abdon, Clinical Epidemiology Unit and Tropical Pathologies, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
Tshilombo François, Surgery Department, University Hospital of Lubumbashi, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
Odimba Etienne, Surgery Department, University Hospital of Lubumbashi, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
Lebwaz Bienvenu, Pathology Department, University Hospital of Kinshasa, University of Kinshasa, Kamina, Democratic Republic of Congo
Kalenga Prospère, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Lubumbashi, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
Ilunga Julien, Pathology Department, University Hospital of Lubumbashi, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
Article Tools
Follow on us
Often tumors in the African setting are described aggressive with high grading status. There is no national cancer registry nor suitable data on breast cancer in DRC. Better knowledge of this entity can improve its management. To demonstrate the clinical and pathological profile of breast cancer in Kinshasa and Lubumbashi (DR Congo). Cross-sectional study of 86 patients were included for clinical and pathological in the Cities of Lubumbashi and Kinshasa from 2014-2016. All cases were women with histological invasive breast carcinoma. Parameters studied were: age of patients at diagnosis, morphological type [33], grade [23] of tumor, tumor necrosis and Nottingham score. Statistical analysis used SPSS program and Pearson Khi-square test. From January 2014 to September 2016, 86 cases were reviewed. The average age of patients at diagnosis was 47.8 ± 12.1 years. In 74% of cases, patients were presented at stage T3 or T4. The average size of tumors was 6.6 ± 2.7 cm. Invasive Ductular carcinoma was found in 97.2% of cases. Grade 3 tumors were found in 54.7% and grade 1 in 4.7%. Tumor necrosis was present in 30.2% of biopsies. The Nottingham score higher than 5.4 was found in 62.8%. All the patients were treated by supra-radical mastectomy. Lymph nodes were numbered in each case. Prognosis of breast cancers is poor in Lubumbashi and Kinshasa University Hospitals for tumors are diagnosed later. To improve breast cancer management, tumor must be diagnosed earlier. Perception of this pathology and its correct assessment are important for better taking care in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Breast Carcinoma, Clinico-Pathological Evaluation, Prognosis
To cite this article
Nday Guy, Kabamba Michel, Mukalay Abdon, Tshilombo François, Odimba Etienne, Lebwaz Bienvenu, Kalenga Prospère, Ilunga Julien, Breast Cancer: Clinical and Pathological Study at Lubumbashi and Kinshasa University Hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 2014 to 2015, International Journal of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Research. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2017, pp. 141-148. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcocr.20170206.13
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abbas S, Linseisen J, Chang-Claude J. Dietary Vitamin D and calcium intake and premenopausal breast cancer risk in a German case-Control study. Nutr Cancer 2007; 59: 54-61.
Adisa CA, Eleweke N, Alfred AA, Campbell MJ, Sharma R, Nseyo O, V, Mukthtar, Greninger Tandon has, JD, Esserman LJ Risi. "Biology of breast cancer in Nigeria women: a pilot study." Ann Afr Med 2012. jul - sept; 11 (3): 169-75.
Agboola A. O. J, Banjo A. A. F., C. C., Salami b., Agboola AnunobiMr D., Musa A. A., Nolan C. C., Rakha E. A., Ellis I. O., Green a. R.. cell proliferation (Ki. 67) Expression is associated with poorer prognosis in Nigerian compared to british Breast Cancer Women Hindawi Publishing Corporation ISRN Oncology, 2013; Article ID 675051, 8 pages.
Amadori D, Serra P, Bravaccini S, Farolfi A, Puecetti M, Carretta E, Medri L, Nanni O., Tumedei MM, Kahima J, Masalu N., Differences in biological features of breast cancer between Caucasian (Italian) and African (Tanzanian) populations, Breast cancer Res treat. May 2014; 145 (1). 177-83.
Anders C, Hsu D, Broadwater G, et al. Young age at diagnosis correlates with worse prognosis and defines a subset of breast Cancers with shared patterns of gene expression. I Clinoncol 2008; 26: 3324-30.
Anders C. Johnson R., Litton, J., Phillips M., and Bleyer A. "Breast Cancer before Age 40 years," Semin Oncol. 2009 June; 36 (3): 237-249.
Aziz H., Hussain, F., Sohn C. et al.'Early onset of breast carcinoma in Africa American women with poor prognosis factors', American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1999, 22, (5), pp. 436-440, 1999.
Bailes AA, Kuerer HM, Lari, Jones LA, Brewster A M. Impact of race and ethnicity on features and outcome of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Cancer. 2013 Jan 1; 119 (1): 150-7.
Bebenek M., Pudelko, and Blaszezyk J., ' Breast cancer incidence and mortality in lower Silesia (Poland), between 1984 and 2003-trends and perspectives "Central European Journal of medicine, 2007, 2 (2), pp 208-215.
Boder J. M. E, Abdalla F. B. E, Elfageih M. A, Abusaa A., Buhmeida A. and Collan Y., 'Breast Cancer patients' in Libya: comparaison with European and central patients. Oncology letters, Vol 2, No 2. Pp 323-330, 2011.
Bogdanova N, Helbig, Dork T. Hereditary cancer in clinical pratrice 2013; 11: 12.
Bowen R. L., Duffy S. W., Ryan A. R., I. R., and Jones J. L. Hart, “Early onset of breast cancer in a group of british black women”. British journal of cancer, 2008; 98 (2): 277-281.
Braverman A. Evidence that high calcium and vitamin D intake decrease the risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women: implications for breast cancer prevention and screeming. South Med J 2007; 100: 1061-2.
Chalabi N, Bernard-Gallon DJ, Bignon YJ, et al. Comparative clinical and transcriptomal profiles of breast cancer between French and south Mediterranean patient show minor but significantive biological differences. Cancer Genomics Proteomics 2008, 5: 253-61.
Chokunonga E Borok MZ, Chirenpe ZM, Nyakabau AM, Parkin DM. Trends in the incidence of cancer in the black population of Harare, Zimbabwe, 1991-2010. Int J; Cancer. 2013; 133: 721-29 (PubMed: 23364833).
Coughlin S., Ekwueme, D "Breast cancer as a global health concern, Cancer Epidemiology 2009; 33: 315-318.
Dawson S.-J, Rueda. Ukw Aparicio S, and Coldas. C, "A new genome-driven integrated classification of breast cancer and its inmplication" The EMBO journal 2013; 32, 617-628.
El Fatemi H, Chahboumi S, Jayi S, Amarti A. "Luminal B tumors are the most frequent molecular subtype B in breast cancer of North African Women: An. immunohistochemical profile study from Morocco" Diagn Pathol. 2012 Dec; 7: 7: 170.
Elmore J. G Moceri VM., Carter, and E. B. Larson, "Breast carcinoma tumor characteristics in black and white women' cancer, 1998; 83 (12): 2509-2514.
Ferlay, J., Shin H. R. Bray F, Forman D., Mathers C., and Parkin D. M., "GLOBOCAN 2008 V 1.2, cancer Incidence and Mortality woldwide. IARC cancerbase No. 10,' International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 2010,
Ferlay, JSL; Ervik, M; Dikshit, R et al. IARC. Golbovan 2012: estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide: IARC, Lyon, France: International Agency for research on cancer; 2013 (accessed Fed 1, 2014).
Fulford, LG, Easton DF, Reis-Filho JS, Sofronis Gillett CE, Lakhani SR, Hanby A. Specific morphological features predictive Lakhani for the basal phenotype in grade ductal carcinoma of the breast 3 invasive. Histopathology. 2006; 49: 22-34.
Galant C. Berlière M, Isabelle, Marbaix E Overview of istopathological prognostic factors in breast cancer, including newcomers. Elsevier. Imagery of women (2010) 20, 9-17.
Ganiy. Opeyemi Abdulrahman Jnr and Ganiyu Adebisi Rahman. Epidemiology of Breast cancer in Europe and Africa. Review Article, Journal of cancer Epidemiology volume 2012. Article ID 915610, 5 pages.
Ginsburg O M and Love R. R. "Breast Cancer: a neglected disease for the majority of affected women worldwide", Breast J., 2011; 17 (3): 289-295.
Ginsburg J,, Iqbal O, Rochon P. A., Sun P, Narod SA. "Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and cancer specific survival by race and ethnicity in the united states." JAMA 2015 jan 13, 313 (2): 165-73.
Ihemelandu CU, Lasalle D. Leffall, Dewitty R. L, Noab TJ, Mezghebe HM, Makambi K. H, Adams-Campbell L and Frederick W. A, "Molecular Breast Cancer subtype in premenopausal and postmenopausal African-American Women: Age - specific Survival and Prevalence," Journal of Surgical Research, 2007; 109-118, 143.
Ikpatt OF, Kronqvist, Kuopio T., Doma-Egba R., and Collan Y. "Histopathology of the breast cancer in different populations: comparative analysis for Finland and Africa Electronic Journal of Pathology and Histology, 2002; 8 (4), pp 24011 24018.
Kakarala M, Rojek L, Cote M, Liyanage S, Brenner D E. “Breast cancer histology and receptor characterization in Asian Indian and Pakistani women status in the US. --a seer analysis, "BMC cancer. 2010 May 11; 10: 191.
Kantelhardt EJ, Zerche P, Matherwos A, Trocchi P, Addissie A, Aynalem A, Wondenagegnehu T, Ersumo T, Reeler A, Yonas B, Tinsea M, Gemechu T, Jemal A, Thomssen C, Stang A, Bogale S. Breast cancer survival in Ethiopia: a cohort study of 1, 070 women. Int Jcancer. 2014 August 1, 135 (3): 702-9.
Key T., Appleby P., Barnes, I., Reeves G., and Endogenous Hormones and breast acancer collaborative Group, "Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in post-menopausal women reanalysis of nine prospective studies ', Journal of the national cancer Institute, 2002; 94 (98): 606-616.
Kim M.-J., Ro J. Y., Ahn s.., Kim H. H, Kim S.-B., Gong, G., "clinicopathologic significance of the basal - like subtype of breast cancer: a comparison with hormone receptor and Her2/neu-over phenotypes expressing phenotypes' Human pathology (2006). 37, 1217-1226.
Lakhani S. R., Ellis I. O., Schnitt S. J., Tan M, Van de Vijver M. J. WHO classification of tumours of the breast. International Agency for Research on cancer, Lyon, 2012, pp 8, 20, 2012.
Leong S. P. L., Shen Z.-Z, Liu T - j, Agarwal G, Tejina T, N-S Paik, SandelinK, Derossis Cady H, Foulker W D. "Is Breast cancer, the same disease in Asian and Western countries? World J surg (2010) 34: 2308-2324.
Lin J, Manson J, Lee I, Cook N, Buring J, Zhang S. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch intern Med 2007; 167: 1050-9.
Ly M, Antoine M, Dembele AK, Levy P, Ródenas A, BA Touré, Allen Y, Dembélé BK, Bacani DC, Diallo YL, Koné AA, Collard P, Bernaudin JF, Diallo D A "High incidence of triple negative tumors in sub-saharan Africa: a prospective study of breast cancer characteristics and risk factors in Malian women seen in a Bamako University hospital.» Oncology 2012; 83 (5): 257-63.
Mohapatra M, Satyanarayan S. Evaluation of clinicopathologic findings of breast carcinoma in general hospital in Southern India. Indian Cancer 2013: 50; 297-301.
Naeem M., Kahn. N., Aman Z., Nasir A. Samad A., Khattak A., Pattern of breast Cancer: Experience at reading hospital lody, Peshowar. J ayub Med. Al. Abbottabad 2008; 20 (4).
Newman L. A. and Alfonso A. E., ' Age-related differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis between black and white patients in an urban community hospital, "Annals of Surgical oncology, 1997; 4 (8), pp. 655-662.
O'. Brien KM, Cole SR, Tse et al. Intrinsic breast tumor sub types race and long-term survival in the Carolina. Breast Cancer Study. Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16: 6100-6110.
Ohene-yeboah M, Adjei E. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana. Ghana Med J. 2012 Mar, 46 (1) 8-13.
Paho (accessed Feb 1, 2014) cancer in the Americas; country profiles 2013. http//
Pang J Toy KA, Griffith KA, Awauh B, Quayson S, Newman the Kleer CG, ' Invasive breast Carcinoma in Ghana: high frequency of high grade basal-like histology and highEZH2 expressions, ' Breast Cancer res Treat 2012 Aug. 135 (1): 59-66.
Parkin DM, Bra y F, J Ferlay, Jemats. Cancer in Africa 2012. Cancer epidemiol Biomarkers prev. 2014; 23: 953 - 66 (Pumed Med: 24700176).
[45] Peppercorn J, Perou CM, Carey LA. Molecular subtypes in breast cancer evaluation and management: Divide and conguer Cancer Invest 2008; 26: 1-10.
Rakha EA, El sayed ME, Lee AH, Blamey RW, Ellis I. O, Elston Cw, Grainge MJ, Hodiz. Prognostic significance of Nottingham histology: grade in invasive breast carcinoma J. Clin Oncol, 2008: 26: 3153-3158.
Rambau P. F., Chalya P. L., Manyama M. M., and Jackson K. J., 'Pathological feature of Breast Cancer seen in Northwestern Tanzania: A nine years retrospective study ', BMC Research Notes, p. 214, 2011.
Reyal F, Hajage D, Savignoni A, Feron J - G, Bollet Feron MA et a. Long-term prognostic performance of Ki67 rate in early-stage, p T1 - pT2, p No, Invasive Breast carcinoma. Plos One, 2013; 8 (3): e 55901.
Schneider BP, Winer EP, Foulkes WD, et al. Triple-negative breast cancer: Risk factors topotential targets. Clin Cancer Res 2008; 14: 8010-8018.
Silber JH, Rosenbaum PR, Clark AS Giantonio BJ, Ross RN, Teng Y, Wany M, Niknam BA, Ludwig JM, Wang W, Even-Shoshan O, Fox KR, characteristics associated with differences in survival among black and white women whith breast cancer. JAMA. 2013 Jul 24; 310 (4): 389-97.
Sotiriou C, Wirapati P, S, Harris Act has, Fox S, Smeds J, Norgren H, Farmer P, Praz V, HaibeKains B, Desmedt C, Larsimot D, Cardoso F, H, Nuyten Peterse D, M, Van de Vijver MJ, Bergh Buyse J, parks M, Delorenzi M (2006). Gene expression profiling in breast of histologic grade to improve prognosis. J Natl Cancer Inst 98: 262-272.
Tea MK Fan L Delancey JW, Staudigl C, Steurer S, Lang C, Shao Z M, Singer CF "Is breast cancer in young asian women more aggressive than in Caucasians? A cross-sectional analysis,"Tumour Biol. 2013 Aug; 34 (4): 2379-82.
Thompson A, Brennan K, Cox A, Gee, Harcourt D. Evaluation of the Current Knowledge limitation in breast Cancer research: a gap analysis breast Cancer Reseasrch 2008, 10: R. 26.
Van der Groep P., Vander W. E., Van Diest P. J. 'Pathology of hereditary breast cancer. Cell Oncol. (2011) 34: 71-88.
Vogel VG. Epidemiology, genetics, and risk evaluation of post-menopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Menaupose 2008; 15 (suppl): 782-789.
Wabinga H, Parkin DM, Nambooze, S, Amero J. Cancer survival in Kampala, Uganda, 1993-1997. IARC Sci Pub. 2011; 162: 243-47.
Wheeler SB, Reeder-Hayes KE, Carey L A: Disparities in breast cancer treatement and outcomes: Biological, social and health system determinants and opportunities for Research, "The Oncologist 2013; 18: 986-993.
Wittekind C., Asamura, Sobin L. H. TNM Atlas, Sixth Edition. Union for international Cancer control, 2014; p 231, 232.
Xue C., Wang X., Peng R., Shi, Y., Qin T., Lin D., Teng X., Wang S., Zhang L. and Yuan Z. 'Distribution, clinicopathologic features and survival of breast cancer subtypes in southern China' Cancer serese 2012.
Yao S, Ambrosome CB, Association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of aggressive breast cancer in African-American women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Jul; 136: 337-41.
Yu K, Lee CH, Tan PH, GS, SB, Wong CY, Tan Wee Hong P (2004). A molecular signature of the Nottingham index prognosis in breast cancer. Cancer Res 64: 2962-2968.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186