The Influence of Serum Vitamin A on Lung Cancer Risk
International Journal of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Research
Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2017, Pages: 45-50
Received: Feb. 28, 2017; Accepted: Mar. 11, 2017; Published: Mar. 27, 2017
Views 1803      Downloads 150
Erik Cook, Department of Health Research, LVC Services, Pacoima, USA
Article Tools
Follow on us
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of serum level vitamin A with the incidence of lung cancer (LCa). An analysis, using a prospective study design, was conducted among a cohort of 3,086 men and women, ages 25 to 74 years, from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, inverse associations between serum vitamin A and LCa risk were observed in all models. These findings suggest that increased serum vitamin A may protect against LCa. Additional studies, addressing the limitations encountered in this analysis, are needed to validate the protective role vitamin A may play against LCa risk.
Follow-up Studies, Incidence, Lung Neoplasms, Nutrition Surveys, Prospective Studies, Vitamin A
To cite this article
Erik Cook, The Influence of Serum Vitamin A on Lung Cancer Risk, International Journal of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Research. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2017, pp. 45-50. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcocr.20170202.13
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). U. S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States Cancer Statistics: 1999–2013 Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). What are the risk factors for lung cancer? Lung cancer. Retrieved 9 January 2017 from https://www. cdc. gov/cancer/lung/basic_info/risk_factors. htm.
Sasco, A. J., Secretan, M. B., & Straif, K. (2004). Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence. Lung Cancer, 45, S3-S9.
Moyer, V. A. (2014). Screening for lung cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of internal medicine, 160 (5), 330-338.
Wender, R., Fontham, E. T., Barrera, E., Colditz, G. A., Church, T. R., Ettinger, D. S. & LaMonte, S. J. (2013). American cancer society lung cancer screening guidelines. Ca: A. Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 63 (2), 106-117.
Schwartz, A. G., & Swanson, G. M. (1997). Lung carcinoma in African Americans and whites. Cancer, 79 (1), 45-52.
Haiman, C. A., Stram, D. O., Wilkens, L. R., Pike, M. C., Kolonel, L. N., Henderson, B. E., & Le Marchand, L. (2006). Ethnic and racial differences in the smoking-related risk of lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 354 (4), 333-342.
Couraud, S., Zalcman, G., Milleron, B., Morin, F., & Souquet, P. J. (2012). Lung cancer in never smokers–a review. European Journal of Cancer, 48 (9), 1299-1311.
Wakelee, H. A., Chang, E. T., Gomez, S. L., Keegan, T. H., Feskanich, D., Clarke, C. A. & West, D. W. (2007). Lung cancer incidence in never smokers. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25 (5), 472-478.
Office of the Surgeon General (2004). The health consequences of smoking: a report of the surgeon general.
Chen, L. H., Boissonneault, G. A., & Glauert, H. P. (1987). Vitamin C, vitamin E and cancer (review). Anticancer Research, 8 (4), 739-748.
van Poppel, G., & van den Berg, H. (1997). Vitamins and cancer. Cancer Letters, 114 (1), 195-202.
Mamede, A. C., Tavares, S. D., Abrantes, A. M., Trindade, J., Maia, J. M., & Botelho, M. F. (2011). The role of vitamins in cancer: a review. Nutrition and Cancer, 63 (4), 479-494.
Moyer, V. A. (2014). Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals of internal medicine, 160 (8), 558-564.
Gallicchio, L., Boyd, K., Matanoski, G., Tao, X. G., Chen, L., Lam, T. K. & Herman, J. G. (2008). Carotenoids and the risk of developing lung cancer: a systematic review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88 (2), 372-383.
Abar, L., Vieira, A. R., Aune, D., Stevens, C., Vingeliene, S., Navarro Rosenblatt, D. A. & Norat, T. (2016). Blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol and lung cancer risk: an update of the WCRF–AICR systematic review of published prospective studies. Cancer Medicine, 5 (8), 2069-2083.
Goodman, G. E., Schaffer, S., Omenn, G. S., Chen, C., & King, I. (2003). The association between lung and prostate cancer risk, and serum micronutrients results and lessons learned from Β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 12 (6), 518-526.
Epplein, M., Franke, A. A., Cooney, R. V., Morris, J. S., Wilkens, L. R., Goodman, M. T.,... & Le Marchand, L. (2009). Association of plasma micronutrient levels and urinary isoprostane with risk of lung cancer: the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 18 (7), 1962-1970.
Michaud, D. S., Feskanich, D., Rimm, E. B., Colditz, G. A., Speizer, F. E., Willett, W. C., & Giovannucci, E. (2000). Intake of specific carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in 2 prospective US cohorts. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 (4), 990-997.
Holick, C. N., Michaud, D. S., Stolzenberg-Solomon, R., Mayne, S. T., Pietinen, P., Taylor, P. R. & Albanes, D. (2002). Dietary carotenoids, serum β-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156 (6), 536-547.
Yong, L. C., Brown, C. C., Schatzkin, A., Dresser, C. M., Slesinski, M. J., Cox, C. S., & Taylor, P. R. (1997). intake of vitamins E, C, and A and risk of lung cancer the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 146 (3), 231-243.
Voorrips, L. E., Goldbohm, R. A., Brants, H. A., van Poppel, G. A., Sturmans, F., Hermus, R. J., & van den Brandt, P. A. (2000). A prospective cohort study on antioxidant and folate intake and male lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 9 (4), 357-365.
Shibata, A., Paganini-Hill, A., Ross, R. K., & Henderson, B. E. (1992). Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C. and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study. British Journal of Cancer, 66 (4), 673.
Friedman, G. D., Blaner, W. S., Goodman, D. S., Vogelman, J. H., Brind, J. L., Hoover, R. & Orentreich, N. (1986). Serum retinol and retinol-binding protein levels do not predict subsequent lung cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology, 123 (5), 781-789.
Heinonen, O. P., & Albanes, D. (1994). The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The New England Journal of Medicine (USA).
Omenn, G. S., Goodman, G. E., Thornquist, M. D., Balmes, J., Cullen, M. R., Glass, A. & Barnhart, S. (1996). Risk factors for lung cancer and for intervention effects in CARET, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 88 (21), 1550-1559.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS). Retrieved 9 January 2017 from http://www. cdc. gov/nchs/nhanes/nhefs/nhefs. htm.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Data and documentation/codebook files, NHANES I (1971-1974). Retrieved 9 January 2017 from http://www. cdc. gov/nchs/nhanes/nhanesi. htm.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Public use data files and documentation, NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study. Retrieved 9 January 2017 from http://www. cdc. gov/nchs/nhanes/nhefs/nhefspuf. Htm.
National Center for Health Statistics (1979). Hematology and clinical chemistry procedures developed or utilized by the Center for Disease Control, Bureau of Laboratories, 1971-1975. Retrieved 9 January 2017 from http://www. cdc. gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanesi/16-71_75.pdf.
Cox CS, Mussolino ME, Rothwell ST, et al. Plan and operation of the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study 1992. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 1 (35). 1997.
Coussens, L. M., & Werb, Z. (2002). Inflammation and cancer. Nature, 420 (6917), 860-867.
Eiró, N., & Vizoso, F. J. (2012). Inflammation and cancer. World J Gastrointest Surg, 4 (3), 62-72.
Mantovani, A., Romero, P., Palucka, A. K., & Marincola, F. M. (2008). Tumour immunity: effector response to tumour and role of the microenvironment. The Lancet, 371 (9614), 771-783.
Finn, O. J. (2012). Immuno-oncology: understanding the function and dysfunction of the immune system in cancer. Annals of Oncology, 23 (suppl 8), viii6-viii9.
Grivennikov, S. I., Greten, F. R., & Karin, M. (2010). Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Cell, 140 (6), 883-899.
Blomhoff, H. K. (2004). Vitamin A regulates proliferation and apoptosis of human T-and B-cells.
Ertesvag, A., Engedal, N., Naderi, S., & Blomhoff, H. K. (2002). Retinoic acid stimulates the cell cycle machinery in normal T cells: involvement of retinoic acid receptor-mediated IL-2 secretion. The Journal of Immunology, 169 (10), 5555-5563.
Dennert, G., & Lotan, R. (1978). Effects of retinoic acid on the immune system: stimulation of T killer cell induction. European Journal of Immunology, 8 (1), 23-29.
Salgo, M. G., Cueto, R., Winston, G. W., & Pryor, W. A. (1999). Beta carotene and its oxidation products have different effects on microsome mediated binding of benzo [a] pyrene to DNA. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26 (1), 162-173.
Perocco, P., Paolini, M., Mazzullo, M., Biagi, G. L., & Cantelli-Forti, G. (1999). β-Carotene as enhancer of cell transforming activity of powerful carcinogens and cigarette-smoke condensate on BALB/c 3T3 cells in vitro. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 440 (1), 83-90.
Paolini, M., Cantelli-Forti, G., Perocco, P., Pedulli, G. F., Abdel-Rahman, S. Z., & Legator, M. S. (1999). Co-carcinogenic effect of β-carotene. Nature, 398 (6730), 760-761.
Wang, X. D., Liu, C., Bronson, R. T., Smith, D. E., Krinsky, N. I., & Russell, R. M. (1999). Retinoid signaling and activator protein-1 expression in ferrets given β-carotene supplements and exposed to tobacco smoke. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 91 (1), 60-66.
Liu, C., Wang, X. D., Bronson, R. T., Smith, D. E., Krinsky, N. I., & Russell, R. M. (2000). Effects of physiological versus pharmacological β-carotene supplementation on cell proliferation and histopathological changes in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed ferrets. Carcinogenesis, 21 (12), 2245-2253.
Bergmann, M. M., Calle, E. E., Mervis, C. A., Miracle-McMahill, H. L., & Thun, M. J. (1998). Validity of self-reported Cancers in a Propsective Cohort Study in Comparison with Data from State Cancer Registries. American Journal of Epidemiology, 147 (6), 556-562.
Parikh-Patel, A., Allen, M., Wright, W. E., & California Teachers Study Steering Committee. (2003). Validation of self-reported cancers in the California Teachers Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157 (6), 539-545.
Sethi, T. K., El-Ghamry, M. N., & Kloecker, G. H. (2012). Radon and lung cancer. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol, 10 (3), 157-164.
National Institutes of Health (2016). Vitamin a: factsheet for professionals. Retrieved 9 January 2017 from: https://ods. od. nih. gov/factsheets/VitaminA-HealthProfessional/.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186