International Journal of Materials Science and Applications

Special Issue

Steel and Direct Reduced Iron (sponge Iron) Industry

  • Submission Deadline: Jan. 10, 2015
  • Status: Submission Closed
  • Lead Guest Editor: Jaleel Ahmed
About This Special Issue
The method by which the first iron workers in ancient time produced a sponge and incoherent mass by reduction the iron ore with the hot coals of their small bonfires has already been described. Because of its appearance, and with the passing of time, man came to call it sponge iron. This production contained metallic iron, ferrous oxide which had hot been reduced, slag and impurities and only traces of carbon. Later through beating and reheating successively, it lost a good part of the impurities and slag and turned into iron that was stronger and more useful for the making of weapons and utensils. In this way, sponge iron was the principal source of supply for iron and steel for many centuries, until, around the year 1300 A.D., a process was developed whose impact and importance to civilization are well known and which was called a Blast Furnace.

Today direct reduced iron (sponge iron) which produced by reduction of iron ore by reducing gases (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) can be used by electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmakers as a part of their metallic charge, along with normal mill returns and, if required, with certain amounts of non – selected cheap scrap. The many advantages associated with the use of sponge iron enable the EFA steelmaker to economically produce not only tight specifications steels, but also the tonnage plain carbon steels.

Direct Reduced Iron, with its sponge – like structure, is chemically active and easily oxidized. The author has developed an efficient process for the treatment of sponge iron, known as the Waxing Process, which makes the sponge iron resistant to both oxidation and corrosion and no heat generated which causes fire.

A severe test is carried on by transferring about 22 tons waxed sponge iron from Saudi Arabia to Baghdad (1300 Km) in open trucks and under slightly raining. The results showed that (1) no loss in metallization (2) no fines created (3) no heat generated.
Lead Guest Editor
  • Jaleel Ahmed

    College of Materials Engineering, University of Babylon, Hilla, Iraq

Guest Editors
  • Ashok Kamaraj

    Metal Extraction and Forming, AcSIR, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, India

Published Articles
  • Effect of Novolac on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Nitrile Rubber (NBR)

    Mohammed H. Al-Maamori , Ali Abdul-Amir Al-Zubaidi , Ahmed Abdulameer Subeh

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015
    Pages: 43-47
    Received: Jan. 13, 2015
    Accepted: Jan. 17, 2015
    Published: Feb. 01, 2015
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.s.2015040201.18
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    Abstract: This research aims to study the effect of addition novolac material (phenol formaldehyde resin, polar) on the mechanical and physical properties of nitrile rubber (NBR) and the proportion of addition novolac material is(0,10,20,30,40,50 pphr) to a sample of nitrile rubber containing 40 part per hundred rubber (pphr) carbon black as a proportion sta... Show More
  • Using Chlorophyll as Gamma Absorber

    Jaleel Kareem Ahmed

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015
    Pages: 37-42
    Received: Jan. 07, 2015
    Accepted: Jan. 08, 2015
    Published: Jan. 27, 2015
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.s.2015040201.17
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    Abstract: Chlorophyll extracted from celery using 50% v/v water – methyl alcohol as a solvent. By this method the concentration of chlorophyll was 22.6% with yellowish-green color. This solution showed strongly absorption at 400 – 210 nm and maximum was at the end of ultra-violet region. This absorption appeared in water, methyl alcohol, and acetone, but str... Show More
  • Viscoelastic and Rheological Properties of Carboxymethyl Cellulose /Starch/Graphite Oxide as Superabsorbent Hydrogel Nano Composites (SHNCs)

    Auda Jabbar Braihi , Sihama Issa Salih , Fadhel Abbas Hashem

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015
    Pages: 30-36
    Received: Nov. 17, 2014
    Accepted: Dec. 04, 2014
    Published: Dec. 27, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.s.2015040201.16
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    Abstract: Uncross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) / starch blend used to prepare two hydrogels; the first is cross-linked CMC / starch with aluminum sulfate octadecahydrate cross-linker and the second is SHNCs manufactured from incorporation of 0.3wt% nano graphite oxide (GO) in the above cross-linked blend. Viscoelastic and rheological properties of th... Show More
  • Effect of Chlorophyll and Anthocyanin on the Secondary Bonds of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC)

    Jaleel Kareem Ahmed , Zuhair J. Abdul Amer , Maha Jasim Mohammed Al-Bahate

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015
    Pages: 21-29
    Received: Nov. 16, 2014
    Accepted: Nov. 19, 2014
    Published: Nov. 22, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.s.2015040201.15
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    Abstract: This paper deals with the effect of natural pigments (chlorophyll and anthocyanin) on the secondary bonds in (poly vinyl chloride PVC), which play an important role in the physical and chemical behavior of it. Natural pigments extracted from plants by a simple method and blended with PVC powder in different ratio of natural pigments, and the proper... Show More
  • Effect of Nano Silica on the Mechanical Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Composite

    Jaleel Kareem Ahmed , Mohammed H. Al-maamori , Hajir Mohammed Ali

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015
    Pages: 15-20
    Received: Nov. 16, 2014
    Accepted: Nov. 19, 2014
    Published: Nov. 22, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.s.2015040201.14
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    Abstract: The aim of this research is to study the effect of nano silica which use as a filler with loading level (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 pphr) on mechanical properties of SBR such as Tensile strength, elastic modulus, hardness, abrasion, fatigue and tear resistance. The results show that on addition of small quantities of nano silica an incr... Show More
  • Carburizing of Steel

    Jaleel Kareem Ahmad

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015
    Pages: 11-14
    Received: Oct. 19, 2014
    Accepted: Oct. 23, 2014
    Published: Nov. 05, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.s.2015040201.13
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    Abstract: Paraffin wax (sulfur and phosphorous free)used as carburizer material for low carbon steels(Steel20, Steel3, and Steel 20x) instead of kerosene. Results show 1) Carburized layer by wax is more depth than in case of kerosene for all the three types of steel, e.g. for steel 20x the depths are 1.336 0.001 and 0.98 0.15 mm respectively 2) More homogeni... Show More
  • Inhibition of Reoxidation of Direct Reduced Iron ( DRI) or Sponge Iron

    Jaleel Kareem Ahmad

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015
    Pages: 7-10
    Received: Oct. 19, 2014
    Accepted: Nov. 04, 2014
    Published: Nov. 05, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.s.2015040201.12
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    Abstract: A method of inhibiting degeneration of direct reduced iron by immersing the iron ore, after it has been reduced, in molten wax for a period of time sufficient for the wax to cover completely the surface of the iron and to enter the pores in the surface of the iron. The iron is preferably in the form of pellets which are conveyed in mesh baskets whi... Show More
  • Melting of a New Carbon –Free Waxed Sponge Iron in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) for Steelmaking

    Jaleel Kareem Ahmad

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 2-1, March 2015
    Pages: 1-6
    Received: Oct. 19, 2014
    Accepted: Nov. 02, 2014
    Published: Nov. 03, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.s.2015040201.11
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    Abstract: No problem with the melting of new carbon – free waxed coated sponge iron (Jaleel's process) for producing different steel alloys. Coated wax: (1) acts as inhibitor for inhibition of reoxidation of sponge iron. (2) provide the required carbon for reduction iron oxide as well as a balance for the chemical composition of steel. (3) provide part of th... Show More