About This Special Issue
The main trend in international astronautics is the transition from near-Earth orbital flights to long-distance spaceflights to the Moon and Mars. The conditions of manned space flights to these extraterrestrial bodies and during astronaut work on their surface will drastically differ from those during near-Earth orbital flights. Flight factors will combine in unknown ways and may show unexpected intensity. Long-term space flights cannot be planned without the development of methods for complex defense of astronauts from spaceflight factors (radiation, microgravity). Many different technologies and methods are used for the evaluation of the influence of spaceflight factors on the body. For instance, the effects of microgravity are studied in vitro on a clinostat (for cells) and in vivo using the tail suspension test (for mice). The effects of radiation can be easily modeled under in ground conditions. Irradiation doses and regiments can be varied, the whole body or individual cells can be exposed to radiation. This special issue of the journal will be dedicated to consideration of the influence of space flight factors on various systems of the organism of experimental animals and humans.