American Journal of Life Sciences

Special Issue

Space Flight Factors: From Cell to Body

  • Submission Deadline: Dec. 20, 2014
  • Status: Submission Closed
  • Lead Guest Editor: Mikhail Karganov
About This Special Issue
The main trend in international astronautics is the transition from near-Earth orbital flights to long-distance spaceflights to the Moon and Mars. The conditions of manned space flights to these extraterrestrial bodies and during astronaut work on their surface will drastically differ from those during near-Earth orbital flights. Flight factors will combine in unknown ways and may show unexpected intensity. Long-term space flights cannot be planned without the development of methods for complex defense of astronauts from spaceflight factors (radiation, microgravity). Many different technologies and methods are used for the evaluation of the influence of spaceflight factors on the body. For instance, the effects of microgravity are studied in vitro on a clinostat (for cells) and in vivo using the tail suspension test (for mice). The effects of radiation can be easily modeled under in ground conditions. Irradiation doses and regiments can be varied, the whole body or individual cells can be exposed to radiation. This special issue of the journal will be dedicated to consideration of the influence of space flight factors on various systems of the organism of experimental animals and humans.
Lead Guest Editor
  • Mikhail Karganov

    Laboratory of Physicochemical and Ecological Pathophysiology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russian Federation

Guest Editors
  • Irina Alchinova

    Lab of Polysystemic Investigations, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russian Federation

  • Vladimir Katuntsev

    Research Institute for Space Medicine, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation

Published Articles
  • The Choice of Informative Parameters of the Cardiovascular System for Assessment of Physiological Effects of Hypogravity

    Anton Cherepov , Daria Pozdeeva , Elena Arkhipova

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 1-2, January 2015
    Pages: 48-57
    Received: Dec. 19, 2014
    Accepted: Dec. 23, 2014
    Published: Dec. 31, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2015030102.18
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    Abstract: Changes in cardiovascular system (CVS) under conditions of hypogravity simulated using 7- and 21-day ortho- and antiorthostatic hypokinesia at different angles were studied. The aim of the experiment was selection of informative CVS parameters most sensitive to these conditions. Simultaneous recording of 26 CVS parameters on a spiroartheriocardiory... Show More
  • Flight Factors Influence on Human Lymphocyte Radioadaptive Response and Gamma-Interferon Production

    Elena Arkhipova , Irina Alchinova , Mikhail Karganov

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 1-2, January 2015
    Pages: 43-47
    Received: Dec. 10, 2014
    Accepted: Dec. 13, 2014
    Published: Dec. 27, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2015030102.17
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    Abstract: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine with antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities that are crucial for the regulation of immune responses. We examined a group of military pilots. The examinees were divided into 3 subgroups: ground personnel (9 persons, control group), 17 pilots with <1000 h flight time, and 12 pilots with >1000 h flight time. No differences in IFN-α se... Show More
  • Radiobiological Foundation of Crew Radiation Risk for Mars Mission to the Problem of the Space Flight Safety

    Aleksandr Shafirkin , Yury Grigoriev

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 1-2, January 2015
    Pages: 32-42
    Received: Dec. 10, 2014
    Accepted: Dec. 13, 2014
    Published: Dec. 27, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2015030102.16
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    Abstract: This paper presents results of radiobiological experiments, a new concept of radiation hazard on the basis of a generalized dosimetric function, which are foundation of crew radiation risk for Mars mission. The results of 14-year biological experiment on comprehensive clinico-physiological study of 250 dogs exposure to gamma-radiation 60Co during 3... Show More
  • The Embryonic Development of Great Ramshorn Planorbarius Corneus under the Hypomagnetic Field

    S. S. Moisa , A. A. Zotin , V. V. Tsetlin

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 1-2, January 2015
    Pages: 25-31
    Received: Nov. 24, 2014
    Accepted: Dec. 01, 2014
    Published: Dec. 27, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2015030102.15
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    Abstract: The effect of a 100-300-fold attenuated geomagnetic field on the embryonic development of great ramshorn Planorbarius corneus and oxidation-reduction properties in water environment were studied in a hypomagnetic chamber. Mainly the hypomagnetic field effected beneficial influence on the development of mollusks: teratogenic effects were less massiv... Show More
  • Metabolic and Morphological Changes in Rats’ Eye after 7-Days Microgravity Simulation

    Margarita Vyalkina , Anatoly Fedorov , Erika Eskina , Yulia Medvedeva , Elena Arkhipova , Marina Lebedeva , Nadezhda Khlebnikova , Mikhail Baranov , Mikhail Karganov

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 1-2, January 2015
    Pages: 18-24
    Received: Nov. 24, 2014
    Accepted: Nov. 26, 2014
    Published: Dec. 27, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2015030102.14
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    Abstract: Microgravity simulation in rats resulted to changes in eye lavage content. Molecular subfraction analysis with laser correlation spectroscopy revealed significant differences in the pattern of particle distribution in five intervals: 1.9 -2.56 nm, 4.64-6.25 nm, 91.3 nm, 165-300 nm, and 400-734 nm. Microgravity modeling induced a series of interrel... Show More
  • The Effects of Gamma-Irradiation in Sub-Lethal Doses in Mice with Different Radiosensitivity

    Yulia Medvedeva , Elena Arkhipova , Irina Alchinova

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 1-2, January 2015
    Pages: 13-17
    Received: Nov. 20, 2014
    Accepted: Nov. 25, 2014
    Published: Nov. 29, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2015030102.13
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    Abstract: Reactions to gamma-irradiation in an acute dose of 750 R in C57BL/6, 101/Hf and С3H/Sn mice at different physiological levels were analyzed. In C3H/Sn and 101/Hf mice, light scattering spectrum was shifted towards small particles, while in C57BL/6 mice increased contribution of large particles was observed. In 3 weeks, a shift towards larger partic... Show More
  • The Complex of Tests for the Quantitative Evaluation of the Effects of Radiation on Laboratory Animals

    Irina Alchinova , Elena Arkhipova , Yulia Medvedeva , Anton Cherepov , Alexander Antipov , Nikolai Lysenko , Leonid Noskin , Mikhail Karganov

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 1-2, January 2015
    Pages: 5-12
    Received: Nov. 08, 2014
    Accepted: Nov. 12, 2014
    Published: Nov. 14, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2015030102.12
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    Abstract: Exposure to ionizing radiation leads to exhaustion of the pool of stem cells, increases differentiated cell stress, and activated reparation and apoptosis processes. Apart from well-documented acute effects, radiotherapy leads to delayed effects manifesting in few years after successful treatment. The aim of our study was the development of a test ... Show More
  • Changes in Serum and Cell Homeostasis under Irradiation: Factors of Distant Action

    Irina Alchinova

    Issue: Volume 3, Issue 1-2, January 2015
    Pages: 1-4
    Received: Oct. 14, 2014
    Accepted: Oct. 21, 2014
    Published: Oct. 25, 2014
    DOI: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2015030102.11
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    Abstract: Extracellular DNA-containing substances can be used as a marker of the balance between two processes: elimination of cells with critical number of lesions and repair of genetic material due to the work of adaptive systems. The idea of using this criterion was inspired by the results of measuring exDNA in blood plasma of chronically irradiated indiv... Show More