Electroactive polymers have attracted huge attention during the last years in academia and industry due to their unique properties by providing the new method of combining the electrical properties of materials with classical advantages of plastics such as easy and low cost fabrication. Further, these materials possess physical features have enabled them to be promising candidates for great applications in many fields such as energy storage, bio and chemical sensors, batteries, actuators, and biomedical devices.
In recent years, functionalized conducting polymers and modified electrodes used as sensing elements to control selectivity and sensitivity to detection of metal ions in different medias. This modification can be done by tailoring their individual and combined 3D structures to produce new improved modified electrodes.
In the last decades, conducting polymer subject has become it a very fascinating topic for scientists which have started to apply novel methods for enhancements and modifications. Scientists have sought to introduce sophisticated technologies in conducting polymers applications such as patterning and photolithography. The patterning technology have used for modification of polymer film surfaces with particular chemical functionality in terms of the interaction of receptors with different analyte species which can apply in sensors fields.
Currently, the new trend is the preparation of composites polymers including micro and nano-composites of conducting polymers and other materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, or inorganic compounds which have special structure and features.
Moreover, the fast growing of nano-science and nano-technology provides unique potential to overcome challenges faced by many energy storage areas. The nanoscale design of materials, processes and systems provides several advantageous features including new reactions, energy storage devices and solar cells, use in environmental and finally electroanalysis as chemical sensors. Moreover, nanostructures polymers provide new insights into future developments where the energy storage tools are becoming increasingly important for electronic and electrical vehicles.
Besides, electroactive polymers are considered promising candidates for biomedical engineering, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering applications, due to good biocompatibility and mechanical features compared to traditional metal-based substances. Additionally, micro- or nanostructures of polymers can offer the ability to increase amount of active materials and control the extent and rate of drug release. Furthermore, functionalization of conducting polymers can offer modify of imparting properties, solubility and stimuli-responsive. Therefore, conducting polymers can offer an effective path to pharmaceutical drug release.