Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous increase in the demand for polymeric nanofibers which are promising candidates for various applications including tissue engineering, medical textiles, blood vessels, nervous system, drug delivery, wound dressing, pharmaceuticals, drug encapsulation, cosmetics, Protective or smart clothing, filtration, sensors and sport apparel, etc. Nanofibers are also used in energy applications, such as photovoltaic cells, membrane fuel cells, etc. The current trend in nanofibers is to use them for micro power generation. High strength nanofibers may also be used as reinforcing agent in composite materials. To address this demand, researchers have turned to the development of various techniques for the fabrication of nanofibers such as drawing techniques, spinneret-based tunable engineered parameters method, Phase Separation, Self-Assembly, template synthesis, freeze-drying synthesis and interfacial polymerization of nanofibers. The electrospinning technique is well referenced for its effectiveness in the production of nanofibers. A number of techniques based on the conventional needle electrospinning model have been developed and patented over the past two decades and these include among others multi-jets electrospinning, needless electrospinning, Bubble electrospinning, Electroblowing, cylindrical porous hollow tube electrospinning, Melt electrospinning, Coaxial electrospinning, forcespinning, flash-spinning, self-bundling electrospinning, Nanospider electrospinning, charge injection electrospinning, .. etc.
In recent years, with the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, nanofibers have attracted widespread attentions in fundamental research and technological applications. Nanofibers have a wide range of advantages, such as low size (smaller than 100 nm), high aspect ratio, large specific surface area and high porosities. In addition, they also possess superior structural and physical properties not found in conventional fibers (bulk materials) e.g. These aspects and a wide variety of pure and blended, natural and synthetic, organic as well as inorganic polymers have already been successfully electrospun into fibers allowing the production of tailored nanofibrous webs for multiple applications.