Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Diyala,
Renewable Energy Research Center, University of Anbar,
Increasing the temperature is not practical in many engineering applications which may result in premature damage. Therefore, it is essential that effective cooling solutions and fluid flow analysis need to be developed to address these issues as they can have negative implications for electronic devices, heat exchangers reliability, power and performance and heat sinks. Moreover, the accumulation of papers published in both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental methodologies is increasing. Additionally, working fluid type and filling ratio are also very important parameters to be studied and optimized for either conventional or annular pipes. Different nanoparticles have been mixed with base fluid to produce “Nanofluids” in the last few years with the aim to enhance the thermal performance.