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Starch modification involves the alteration of the physical and chemical characteristics of the native starch to improve its functional characteristics. The purpose of the starch modification is to stabilize starch granules during processing and make it suitable for many food and industrial application.
Among all carbohydrate polymers, starch is currently enjoying increased attention owing to its usefulness in different food products. Starch contributes greatly to the textural properties of many food stuffs and is widely used in food and industrial applications as a thickener, colloidal stabilizer, gelling agent, bulking agent and water retention agent
The term "modified starch" encompasses many varieties, such as: oxidised starch, acetylated starch, phosphorylated starch, hydroxypropylated starch, and starch sodium octenyl succinate.
Chemically modified starches:
• are, in contrast to their starch of origin, considerably more stable against heat and cold; they can therefore be used more easily in the industrial production of foodstuffs.
• have better swelling characteristics and thus more favourable flow properties; they disperse well in food.
• their individual characteristics can be precisely adjusted to obtain the optimal desired technological attribute.
In a recent paper, author shows how food grade starches are chemically modified mainly to increase smoothness, paste consistency, clarity and also report freeze-thaw and cold storage stabilities. Starches were modified by critically selecting a suitable modifying agent and a native starch source. The factors that affect the efficiency of modification are the starch source, amylose to amylopectin ratio, granule morphology, and type and concentration of the modifying reagen
In a recent paper author shows how chemically modified starch’s effect on thermal, morphological and pasting/rheological behaviour of native starches and how it may be calculated using instrumentation such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Visco-amylo graph/Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) and dynamic rheometer, respectively.
In this way the knowledge about the structural changes in starch granules, by modification with chemical reagents, can be of importance for understanding the altered functional properties, and for developing chemically modified starches with preferred properties. The efficiency of the chemical modification process depend on the reagent type, botanical origin of the starch, size and structure of its granules. The different kinds of chemically modified starches played different roles in the texture and quality of end product. As to the use of chemically modified starches, such as modified potato, corn, and tapioca starches, the amount of starch substitution should rather be at less than 20% for wheat flour. Cost prices of modified starches are generally lower than those of wheat flour because of their low tariffs. Modified starches are valuable from commercial point of view and for their functionality too.
Sameh A. Korma1, 2, 3 Master student, School of Food Science and technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.Sobia Niazi1, 2, 4, Researcher, School of Food Science and technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.1School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiansu, China2State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Synergetic Innovation Centers of Food Safety and Nutrition, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiansu, China3Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt4National Institute of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan