Identification of Blood Meal of Sand Flies in a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Endemic Area, Volta Region-Ghana
American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume 8, Issue 4, August 2020, Pages: 69-75
Received: May 28, 2020; Accepted: Jun. 10, 2020; Published: Jun. 20, 2020
Views 176      Downloads 91
Authors
Edna Dzifa Doe, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana; Cellular and Clinical Research Centre, Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Accra, Ghana
Godwin Kwakye-Nuako, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
Alexander Egyir-Yawson, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Background: Vector incrimination is of utmost importance in the transmission of Leishmania species identified in the Volta region of Ghana. The feeding preference of sand flies provides valuable information about the vector-host interactions, including reservoir host. Objective: The main aim of this study was to identify the blood meal in collected sand flies and its source from three villages in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the Ho Municipality. Method: Sand flies was collected using CDC light straps and sticky paper traps from Lume Atsiame, Dodome Dogblome and Dodome Awuiasu. They were morphologically identified by taxonomic keys. DNA was extracted from the individual sand flies using the potassium acetate extraction method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of cytochrome b gene (cyt b) fragment was carried out and subsequently DNA sequenced. Results: Of a total of three hundred and sixty-three (363) female sand flies that were analysed, eighty-four (84) representing 23.14% were positive for blood meal presence with an amplified DNA of the expected size, 359bp. Out of the number that was sequenced, the cyt b sequencing revealed that four (4) blood fed females fed on bloodmeal from human (Homo sapiens) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Conclusion: The blood meal presence was more predominant in Sergentomyia ghesquierei and least in Sergentomyia schwetzi. This may aid in the development of effective strategies to control cutaneous leishmaniasis in the endemic areas.
Keywords
Cytochrome B Gene, Feeding Preferences, Identification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Sequencing
To cite this article
Edna Dzifa Doe, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako, Alexander Egyir-Yawson, Identification of Blood Meal of Sand Flies in a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Endemic Area, Volta Region-Ghana, American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp. 69-75. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbls.20200804.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Azizi, K., Moemenbellah-Fard, M. D., Kalantari, M., and Fakoorziba, M. R. Molecular Detection of Leishmania major kDNA from Wild Rodents in a New Focus of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Oriental Region of Iran. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 2012; 12, 844–850.
[2]
Depaquit, J., Grandadam, M., Fouque, F., Andry, P. E., and Peyrefitte, C. Arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by Phlebotomine sandflies in Europe: a review. Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Europeen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles European Communicable Disease Bulletin, 2010; 15: 19507.
[3]
Abbasi, I., Cunio, R., and Warburg, A. Identification of Blood Meals Imbibed by Phlebotomine Sand Flies Using Cytochrome PCR and Reverse Line Blotting. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 2009; 9: 79–86.
[4]
Azizi, K., Askari, M. B., Kalantari, M., and Moemenbellah-Fard, M. D. Molecular detection of Leishmania parasites and host blood meal identification in wild sand flies from a new endemic rural region, south of Iran. Pathogens and Global Health, 2016; 110: 303–309.
[5]
Fonteles, R. S., Pereira Filho, A. A., Moraes, J. L. P., Pereira, S. R. F., Rodrigues, B. L., and Rebêlo, J. M. M. Detection of Leishmania DNA and Blood Meal Identification in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Lençois Maranhenses National Park Region, Brazil. Journal of Medical Entomology, 2018; 55; 445–451.
[6]
González, E., Jiménez, M., Hernández, S., Martín-Martín, I., and Molina, R. Phlebotomine sand fly survey in the focus of leishmaniasis in Madrid, Spain (2012-2014): seasonal dynamics, Leishmania infantum infection rates and blood meal preferences. Parasites & Vectors, 2017; 10; 368.
[7]
Quaresma, P. F., Carvalho, G. M. de L., Ramos, M. C. das N. F., and Andrade Filho, J. D. (2012). Natural Leishmania sp. reservoirs and phlebotomine sand fly food source identification in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 2012; 107: 480–485.
[8]
Claborn, D. The biology and control of leishmaniasis vectors. Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, 2010; 2; 127.
[9]
Roy, D. N., and Brown, A. W. A. The Entomology (Bangalone: The Bangalone Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd.), 1970.
[10]
Dokianakis, E., Tsirigotakis, N., Christodoulou, V., Poulakakis, N., and Antoniou, M. Identification of wild-caught phlebotomine sand flies from Crete and Cyprus using DNA barcoding. Parasites & Vectors, 2018; 11: 94.
[11]
Maleki-Ravasan, N., Oshaghi, M., Javadian, E., Rassi, Y., Sadraei, J., and Mohtarami, F. Blood Meal Identification in Field-Captured Sand flies: Comparison of PCR-RFLP and ELISA Assays. Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases, 2009: 3: 8–18.
[12]
Garlapati, R. B., Abbasi, I., Warburg, A., Poche, D., and Poche, R. Identification of bloodmeals in wild caught blood fed Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) using cytochrome b PCR and reverse line blotting in Bihar, India. J. Med. Entomol., 2012; 49: 515–521.
[13]
Lutomiah, J., Omondi, D., Masiga, D., Mutai, C., Mireji, P. O., Ongus, J., Linthicum, K. J., and Sang, R. Blood meal analysis and virus detection in blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 rift valley fever outbreak in Kenya. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., 2014; 14: 656–664.
[14]
Valinsky, L., Ettinger, G., Bar-Gal, G. K., and Orshan, L. Molecular Identification of Bloodmeals From Sand Flies and Mosquitoes Collected in Israel. Journal of Medical Entomology, 2014; 51: 678–685.
[15]
Llanes-Acevedo, I. P., Arcones, C., Gálvez, R., Martin, O., Checa, R., Montoya, A., Chicharro, C., Cruz, S., Miró, G., and Cruz, I. (2016). DNA sequence analysis suggests that cytb-nd1 PCR-RFLP may not be applicable to sand fly species identification throughout the Mediterranean region. Parasitology Research, 2016; 115: 1287–1295.
[16]
Baum, M., de Castro, E. A., Pinto, M. C., Goulart, T. M., Baura, W., Klisiowicz, D. do R., and Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro, M. C. Molecular detection of the blood meal source of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, Paraná State, Brazil. Acta Tropica, 2015; 143: 8–12.
[17]
Dvorak, V., Halada, P., Hlavackova, K., Dokianakis, E., Antoniou, M., and Volf, P. Identification of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Parasites & Vectors, 2014; 7: 21.
[18]
Kweku, M. A., Odoom, S., Puplampu, N., Desewu, K., Nuako, G. K., Gyan, B., Raczniak, G., Kronmann, K. C., Koram, K., Botero, S., Boakye, D., and Akuffo, H. (2011). An outbreak of suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana: lessons learnt and preparation for future outbreaks. Global Health Action, 2011; 4: 527.
[19]
Ghana Statistical Services. Ghana Statistical Services Report, 2014.
[20]
Directorate of Health Services. Directorate of Health Services, Ho, 2013.
[21]
Abonnenc, E. (1972). Sand flies from the Ethiopian region (Diptera, Psychodidae). Paris ORSTOM memoiirs multigr., 1972; 55: 289.
[22]
Aransay, A. M., Scoulica, E., and Tselentis, Y. Detection and Identification of Leishmania DNA within Naturally Infected Sand Flies by Seminested PCR on Minicircle Kinetoplastic DNA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2000; 6: 1933–193.
[23]
Steuber, S., Abdel-Rady, A., and Clausen, P.-H. PCR-RFLP analysis: a promising technique for host species identification of blood meals from tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Parasitology Research, 2005; 97: 247–254.
[24]
Alcover, M. M., Gramiccia, M., Di Muccio, T., Ballart, C., Castillejo, S., Picado, A., Portús, M., and Gállego, M. Application of molecular techniques in the study of natural infection of Leishmania infantum vectors and utility of sand fly blood meal digestion for epidemiological surveys of leishmaniasis. Parasitology Research, 2012; 111: 515–523.
[25]
González, E., Gállego, M., Molina, R., Abras, A., Alcover, M. M., Ballart, C., Fernández, A., and Jiménez, M. Identification of blood meals in field captured sand flies by a PCR-RFLP approach based on cytochrome b gene. Acta Tropica, 2015; 152: 96–102.
[26]
Hadj-Henni, L., De Meulemeester, T., Depaquit, J., Noël, P., Germain, A., Helder, R., and Augot, D. Comparison of Vertebrate Cytochrome b and Prepronociceptin for Blood Meal Analyses in Culicoides. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2015: 2.
[27]
Boakye, Wilson M. D., and Kweeku M (2005). A Review of Leishmaniasis in West Africa. Ghana Medical Journal, 2005; 39: 94–97.
[28]
Mosore, M. Leishmania infection in sand flies in a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis focus in Ghana. Master of Phylosophy. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. 2015.
[29]
Nzelu, C. O., Kato, H., Puplampu, N., Desewu, K., Odoom, S., Wilson, M. D., Sakurai, T., Katakura, K., and Boakye, D. A. First Detection of Leishmania tropica DNA and Trypanosoma Species in Sergentomyia Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from an Outbreak Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ghana. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2014; 8: e2630.
[30]
Bates, P. A. Transmission of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes by phlebotomine sand flies. International Journal for Parasitology, 2007; 37: 1097–1106.
[31]
Berdjane-Brouk, Z., Koné, A. K., Djimdé, A. A., Charrel, R. N., Ravel, C., Delaunay, P., del Giudice, P., Diarra, A. Z., Doumbo, S., Goita, S., Thera, M. A., Depaquit, J., Marty, P., Doumbo, O. K., and Izri, A. First Detection of Leishmania major DNA in Sergentomyia (Spelaeomyia) darlingi from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Foci in Mali. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7: e28266.
[32]
Jaouadi, K., Bettaieb, J., Bennour, A., Salem, S., Rjeibi, M. R., Chaabane, S., Yazidi, R., Khabouchi, N., Gharbi, A., and Salah, A. B. (2017). First Report on Natural Infection of Phlebotomus sergenti with Leishmania tropica in a Classical Focus of Leishmania major in Tunisia. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2017; 97: 291–294.
[33]
Chargui, N., Slama, D., Haouas, N., Rmadi, L., and Babba, H. Transmission cycle analysis in a Leishmania infantum focus: Infection rates and blood meal origins in sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). Journal of Vector Ecology, 2018; 43: 321–327.
[34]
Kent, R. J., and Norris, D. E. (2005). Identification of mammalian blood meals in mosquitoes by a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction targeting cytochrome B. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2005; 73: 336–342.
[35]
Daba, S., Daba, A., Shehata, M. G., and El Sawaf, B. M. A simple micro-assay method for estimating blood meal size of the sand fly, Phlebotomus langeroni (Diptera: Psychodidae). Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 2004; 34: 173–182.
[36]
Bennai, K., Tahir, D., Lafri, I., Bendjaballah-Laliam, A., Bitam, I., and Parola, P. Molecular detection of Leishmania infantum DNA and host blood meal identification in Phlebotomus in a hypoendemic focus of human leishmaniasis in northern Algeria. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2018; 12: e0006513.
[37]
Tateng, A. N., Kirstein, O. D., Ngouateu, O. B., Krüger, A., von Stebut, E., Maurer, M., Payne, V. K., Warburg, A., and Dondji, B. First detection of Leishmania donovani in sand flies from Cameroon and its epidemiological implications. Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH, 2018; 23: 1014–1021.
[38]
Yared, S., Gebresilassie, A., Abbasi, I., Aklilu, E., Kirstein, O. D., Balkew, M., Brown, A. S., Clouse, R. M., Warburg, A., Hailu, A., and Gebre-Michael, T. A molecular analysis of sand fly blood meals in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic region of northwestern Ethiopia reveals a complex host-vector system. Heliyon, 2019; 5: e02132.
[39]
Anderson, J. M., Samake, S., Jaramillo-Gutierrez, G., Sissoko, I., Coulibaly, C. A., Traoré, B., Soucko, C., Guindo, B., Diarra, D., Fay, M. P., Lawyer, P. G., Doumbia, S., Valenzuela, J. G., and Kamhawi, S. Seasonality and Prevalence of Leishmania major Infection in Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu-Lemaire from Two Neighboring Villages in Central Mali. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2011; 5: e1139.
[40]
Ernieenor Faraliana, C., Mariana, A., and Tze Ming, H. (2013). PCR Amplification of Mitochondrial Cytochrome B Gene of Animals in Malaysia. The Experiment, 2013; 15: 1064–1071.
[41]
Kent, R. J. Molecular methods for arthropod bloodmeal identification and applications to ecological and vector-borne disease studies. Molecular Ecology Resources, 2009; 9: 4–18.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186