Landfills: Investigating Its Operational Practices in Ghana
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science
Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2016, Pages: 19-28
Received: Nov. 3, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 22, 2016; Published: Jan. 3, 2017
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Authors
Ernest Kusi, Department of Environmental Management and Technology, Koforidua Technical University, Koforidua, Ghana
Ampaw Kofi Nyarko, Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Koforidua Technical University, Koforidua, Ghana
Linda Appiah Boamah, Department of Environmental Management and Technology, Koforidua Technical University, Koforidua, Ghana
Clement Nyamekye, Department of Civil Engineering, Koforidua Technical University, Koforidua, Ghana
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore landfill operational activities in Ghana. Very little studies have been conducted on landfill operational practices in Ghana and this study therefore seeks to bridge that gap to help researchers, policy makers, landfill operators and the general public to improve upon existing landfill management. The types, operational practices and the challenges of the landfill management were the main areas touched upon in this study. Information was obtained mainly by primary sources through questionnaires, interviews and site visits. Additional information was however obtained through secondary sources. Three (3) landfill strategies were identified as final disposal sites for collected Municipal Solid Waste. Kpone engineered landfill, Abokobi controlled dump and Nkanfoa open dump sites were the three main landfill sites that were selected. The study showed landfill sites were found very close to residence, water bodies and highways. 65% - 75% of generated municipal solid waste ended up in landfills. Open dumping was the predominant form of landfill types in Ghana as it was found in most of the communities in municipalities and districts. Result obtained from the study revealed that vehicles and equipment cost are the highest contributor to the operating cost in all the three sites; it ranged between 58.4% -61.9% of the total operating cost. The cost of fuel and lubrication fluids represented about 22% of the total operating cost. Frequent break down of equipment, lack of funds to run a more efficient operation, inaccessible nature of the road during raining seasons and encroachment due to absence of fence, were some of the challenges facing landfill operations in Ghana. Recycling of waste was highly recommended to divert more waste from ending up in landfills, thereby increasing its life span. Metropolitan, Municipalities, District Assemblies and private service providers should be made to follow the basic operational controls and standards in relations to landfills in Ghana as specified in landfill operational guidelines with strict enforcement of the policy by Environmental Protection Agency.
Keywords
Landfill, Solid Waste, Operational Activities, Waste Reception
To cite this article
Ernest Kusi, Ampaw Kofi Nyarko, Linda Appiah Boamah, Clement Nyamekye, Landfills: Investigating Its Operational Practices in Ghana, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 19-28. doi: 10.11648/j.ijees.20160101.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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