Please enter verification code
Physico-chemical, Fatty Acid Profile and Amino Acid Composition of the Fruit Pulp and Seeds of Ximeniaamericana L. (Tallow Plum) Obtained in Niger State, Nigeria
International Journal of Food Chemistry
Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2017, Pages: 30-34
Received: Apr. 26, 2017; Accepted: Jul. 5, 2017; Published: Aug. 30, 2017
Views 2120      Downloads 314
Tanko E., Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Ajai A. I., Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Lafiya -Araga R. A., Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Dauda B. E. N., Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Mathew J. T., Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Omozokpia J., Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The analysis of physicochemical, fatty and amino acids of Ximeniaamericana were carried out. The Physicochemical characteristics of oil extracts provide a baseline for suitability of oils. The results of physicochemical properties of the oil extracts revealed the acid value (0.29±0.15, 0.56±0.15)mgKOH/g, saponification value (178.12±0.02, 179.94±1.69)mgKOH/g, peroxide value (27.80±0.11, 30.06±0.12)mEq O2/kg, iodine value (43.17±0.25, 40.61±0.10)g I2/100g, free fatty acids (0.15±0.10, 0.29±0.15)%, refractive index (1.4330±00, 1.4130±00), specific gravity (0.8980±00, 0.9493±00) viscosity (46.99±0.15, 48.00±0.01)gcm3/s-1 and colour (light brown) for pulp and seeds respectively. The fatty acid composition of the extracted oil from X. americana seed and pulp were also carried out. The major saturated acids found in pulp oil were 2-methyloctadecane, decane and Eicosane with the corresponding values of 29.51%, 17.25% and 16.25% oil respectively, while the major unsaturated fatty acids were n-hexadecanoic acid and 1,3-propanediol accounting for 67.20% and 32.80% respectively. Similarly, the major saturated fatty acids in seed oil were E-2-octadecadecen-1-ol with 15.80% and 10-undecenal with 44.59% respectively, while that of unsaturated fatty acids were 10-undecenoic acid with a corresponding value of 24.05% and 75.95% respectively. The total non-essential amino acid values were 30.57g/100g and 51.115g/100g representing 63.00% and 65.00% for pulp and seed respectively while total essential amino acids contents were 17.88g/100g and 27.48g/100g representing 34.97% and 36.90% for pulp and seed respectively. The presence of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in this both fruit pulp and seed could be advantageous as they may complement the functions of one another.
Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid, Amino Acids, Ximeniaamericana
To cite this article
Tanko E., Ajai A. I., Lafiya -Araga R. A., Dauda B. E. N., Mathew J. T., Omozokpia J., Physico-chemical, Fatty Acid Profile and Amino Acid Composition of the Fruit Pulp and Seeds of Ximeniaamericana L. (Tallow Plum) Obtained in Niger State, Nigeria, International Journal of Food Chemistry. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2017, pp. 30-34. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfc.20170102.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Umaru HA, Adamu R., Dahiru D. Nadro MS. Levels of Antinutritional Factors in Some Wild Edible Fruits of Northern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2007, 6 (16): p 1935-1938.
FAO. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. The state of Insecurity in the World. Monitoring the Progress Towards the World Food Summit 2nd Millennium Developmental Goals. Rome: F. A. O, 2004, pp 51.
Pastor A, Gustavo FS. Edible Wild Plants of the Chorote Indians, Gran Chaco, Agentina. Botanical Jounal of Linnean Society, 2007, 153 p 73-85.
Brasileiro MT, Egito MA, Lima JR, Randau KP, Pereira GC, Neto PJR. Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profiles in Aquaculture Nutrition Studies. Journal of Science and Research Development 2008, 89(2): p 164-167.
Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. Uses And Management of Ximeniaamericana, Olacaecea In Semi-Arid East Shewa, Ethiopia. Pakistant Journal of Botany, 2012, 44(4): p 1177-1184.
Maikai VA, Kobo PI, Maikai BVO. Antioxidant Properties of Ximenia americana. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2010, 9, p 7744-7746.
Okigbo RN, Anuagasi LC, Amadi E. Advances in Selected Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Indigenous to Africa. Journal of medicinal plant resources, 2009, 3, p 86-95.
Koenan C, Schmid U, Rogers J, Peilow A, Bosley J, Eggink M, Stam W. Blend Use in Preparing Food Composition, (e.g. margarine), Comprises of Ximenic Acid Originating From Natural Source and Fatty Acids or Glycerides. Derwent Innovations Index, Patent NO. EP 1402787.-A1, (June, 2004), USA. Pp 441.
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Official methods of Analysis (15th edition), K. Heldrch, Virginia, USA. 2009, p 251.
Amadi BA, Agumuo E, Ibegbulem CO. Research methods in Biochemistry. Supreme publishers. Owerri. Imo State, Nigeria. 2004, p 21.
Oderinde RA, Ajayi A, Adewuyi A. Characterization of Seed and Seed Oil of Huracrepitans and the Kinetics of Degradation of the Oil during Heating. European Journal of Environmental and Agriculture Food Chemistry. 2009, 8(3): p 201-208.
Benitez LV. Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profiles in Aquaculture Nutrition studies Proceedings of the third Asian Fish, 1989, Pp 23-25.
Saeed EAM, Bashier RSM. Physicochemical Analysis of Ximenia americanaL. Seed Oil and Structural Elucidation of Some Chemical Constituents of Its Seed Oil and Fruit. Journal of pharmacology and phytothology, 2010, 2, p 49-55.
Eromosele IC, Eromosele CO, Akintoye AO, Komolafe TO. Characterization of oils and chemical analysis of the seeds of wild plants. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 1994, 46, p 361-365.
Eaton DC. Laboratory Investigation in Organic Chemistry. Industry Products, 1989, 51, p 11-14.
Akpabio UD. Evaluation of Proximate Composition, Mineral Element and Anti-nutrients in Almond (Terminaliacatappa) Seeds. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2012, 3(4): p 2247-2252.
Oladipo O, Igbodalo, G, Eromosele C, Folarin OM. Formation and Characterization of Paint Based on Alkyl Resin Derivative of Ximeniaamericana (Wild Olive) Seed Oil. Environmental and Natural Resources Research, 2013, 3(3): p 1927- 0496.
Odoemelan SA. Proximate Composition and Selected physicochemical properties of the seeds of African oil bean (pentaclethramarcophylla). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2005, (6): p 382-383.
Anyasor GN, Ogunwenmo KO, Oyelana OA, Ajayi D, Dangana. Parkistant Journal of Nutrition, 2009, 8(3): p 269-272.
Akinhanmi TF, Atasie VN, Akintokun PO. Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Cashew Nut (Anacardiumoccidentale) Oil and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid. Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, 2008, 2(1): p 1-10.
Jesikha M. Fatty Acid Methylesters Characteristic and Esterification of Some Vegetable Oils for Production of Biodiesel. International Journal of Engineering and Sciences, 2012 1, p 50-53.
Dawodu FA. Physicochemical Studies on Oil Extraction Processes From Some Nigerian Grown Plant Seeds. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2009, 8(2): p 102-110.
Adejala, JO. Evaluation of Mineral Constituents and Physicochemical Properties of Some Oil Seeds. MSc Industrial Chemistry Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2006, p 52.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). Fats and Oil in Human Nutrition. Report of a Joint Experts Consultation Organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation. 1993, p 73.
Akubugwo IE, Ugbogu AE. Physicochemical Studies on oils from five selected Nigerian Plant seeds. Parkistant Journal of Nutrition 2007, 6(1): p 75-78.
Grundy SM. Influence of Stearic Acid on Cholesterol Methabolism Relative to other Long-chain Fatty Acids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1994, 60, p 986-90.
ASTM International. Standard Test Method for Oxidation Onset Temperature of Hydrocarbons by Differential Calorimetry (E-2009-02). Annual Book of Standards Section 12.10, ASTM International, West Consshohocken, 2002, p 734-738.
Chivendu E, Davidson BC, Erlwanger KH. Red Sour Plum (Ximenia Caffra) Seed: a Potential Non Conventional Energy and Protein Source for Livesock Feeds. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 2012, p 1814-9596.
Dauda BEN, Mathew JT, Paiko YB, Ndamitso MM. Nutritive and Anti-nutritive Composition of Lavae Burnaealcinoe (Lepidoptera-saturniidae Stoll 1780) from Gurara Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria, Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 2014, 3(13): p 1771-1779.
ESPGHAN. European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Nutrition and Feeding of Preterm Infants. Acta. Paediatric Scand Supply, 1987: 336, p 1-4.
UK Department. Nutritional Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease. Report On Health and Social Subjects, NP. 46. Her Magesty’s Stationary Office, London, 1993 p 37- 46.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186