Evaluating and Improving Logistics Costs During Offshore Wind Turbine Construction
Background: During the whole life cycle of an offshore wind farm, from cradle to grave, logistics is needed. Particularly during wind turbine construction, vessels are intensively used. However, no study has been found to evaluate logistics costs during this particular turbine construction phase. Objective: In order to close this gap, this paper aims to propose an Offshore Logistics Cost (OLC) framework, evaluate OLC impact on total cost and identify recommendations to reduce this impact. Methodology: This study considers two quantitative approaches to evaluate OLC share. First quantitative approach is based on cost information found in twenty related studies from literature. Second quantitative approach was developed in two steps. A first step is a bottom up calculation model. This model performs OLC calculations for each scenario identified. In a second step, OLC results are used as input to two existing calculation models: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) simplified model and commonly accepted model developed by Megavind. Variance of results are then analyzed to determine a representative range for OLC impact on total cost. Results: Using some related values from literature review, this study assesses wind turbine construction offshore logistics to represent around 1.2% of Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). Using bottom up approach, this study evaluates offshore logistics during wind turbine construction with a broader contribution, conservatively from 0.6 to 7.6% of LCOE for offshore wind turbines over 4 MW power rating. It is also demonstrated that the higher the wind turbine size, the lower offshore logistics impact on LCOE. Conclusion: Offshore wind logistics costs during construction phase can represent between 0.6 and 7.6% of LCOE and it appears necessary to optimize these costs to contribute to a competitive LCOE. As main offshore logistics cost drivers have been identified, areas to reduce LCOE impact are suggested: increasing weather limits to reduce waiting on weather costs, minimizing work offshore, improving processes, using economy of scale and optimizing vessel use.
Evaluating and Improving Logistics Costs During Offshore Wind Turbine Construction, International Journal of Transportation Engineering and Technology.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2018, pp. 65-74.
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