The Effects of Socio-Affective Strategy in the Enhancement of Reading Comprehension among Iranian EFL Learners
This study aimed to investigate the effects of socio-affective strategies in the enhancement of reading comprehension in Iranian EFL learners. For this purpose, the study adopted a quasi-experimental design with a proficiency test to find the homogeneity of groups. Furthermore, two classes were selected as the experimental and control groups (n =60), and the experimental group was conducted by social-affective strategies items. Participants attended in six sessions of the making learners familiar with advantages of social-affective strategies and their effects on improvement of learners’ reading comprehension. Experimental group received different strategies and its sub categories. Then, the researcher taught and employed those strategies by applying them in reading comprehension texts. Learners’ activities and their strong interest showed that they like teaching by employing socio/affective strategies and the progress was measured during the six sessions of employing those strategies in responding to reading questions. An independent t-test, paired sample, and ANCOVA, procedures were applied to find the results in statistics and showed that socio/affective strategies were effective and as a fostering issue in enhancing the learners’ awareness to respond the questions compared to control group that was without any treatment. These outcomes show that using socio/affective strategies were more helpful factor for learners to answer the reading comprehension questions.
Seyyed Fariborz Pishdadi Motlagh,
The Effects of Socio-Affective Strategy in the Enhancement of Reading Comprehension among Iranian EFL Learners, International Journal of Language and Linguistics. Special Issue: Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching Methodologies in All Fields.
Vol. 4, No. 2-1,
2016, pp. 9-22.
Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing reading. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Alderson, J. C., & Urquhart, A. H. (1985). The effect of students’ academic discipline on their performance on ESP reading tests. Language Testing, 2, 192–204.
Anderson, N. J. (1991). Individual differences in strategy use in second language reading and testing. The Modern Language Journal, 75, 460–472.
Abbott, M.L. (2006). ESL Reading Strategies: Differences in Arabic and Mandarin speaker test performance. Language Learning, 56(4): 633-670.
Abitat, L. 2007. Reading strategies. http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/departments/isa/staff/ English/reading strategies.htm. Accessed on 17 August 2007.
Adams M.J. 1990. Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Adeyemi, D. 2008. Bilingual education: Meeting the challenges of diversity in Botswana. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 17(1): 20-23.
Alderson, J.C. & Urquhart, A.H. 1988. This test is unfair: I’m not an economist, in Interactive approaches to second language reading. Edited by P.L. Carrell, J. Devine and D.E Eskey.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 168-182.
Al–Jarf, R. 2006. Language student enrollment in EFL programs: Challenges and consequences.
Barnett, M. A. (1986). Syntactic and lexical/semantic skill in foreign language reading: Importance and interaction. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 343–349.
Barry, S., & Lazarte, A. A. (1998). Evidence for mental models: How do prior knowledge, syntactic complexity, and reading topic affect inference generation in a recall task for nonnative readers of Spanish? The Modern Language Journal, 82, 176–193.
Beck, I., McKeown, M., Sinatra, G., & Loxterman, J. (1991). Revising social studies text from a text-processing perspective: Evidence of improved comprehensibility. Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 251–276.
Bernhardt, E. B. (1991). Reading development in a second language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Bernhardt, E. B. (2005). Progress and procrastination in second language reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 133–150.
Block, E. L. (1986). The comprehension strategies of second language readers. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 463–494.
Block, E. L. (1992). See how they read: Comprehension monitoring of L1 and L2 readers. TESOL Quarterly, 26, 319–343.
Booth, J. R., Perfetti, C. A., & MacWhinney, B. (1999). Quick, automatic, and general activation of orthographic and phonological representations in young readers. Developmental Psychology, 35, 3–19.
Brantmeier, C. (2004). Building a comprehensive theory of adult foreign language reading: A variety of variables and research methods. Southern Journal of Linguistics, 27, 1–7.
Brantmeier, C. (2006). Toward a multicomponent model of interest and L2 reading: Sources of interest, perceived situational interest, and comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 18, 89–115.
Brown, R., Pressley, M., Van Meter, P., & Schuder, T. (1996). A quasi-experimental validation of transactional strategy instruction with low-achieving second-grade students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 18–37.
Carrell, P. L. (1985). Facilitating ESL reading by teaching text structure. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 727–752.
Carrell, P. L. (1987). Content and formal schemata in ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 461–481.
Carrell, P. L. (1992). Awareness of text structure: Effects on recall. Language Learning, 42, 1–20.
Carrell, P. L., Gajdusek, L., & Wise, T. (1998). Metacognition and EFL/ESL reading. Instructional Science, 26, 97–112.
Carver, R. (1992). Reading rate: Theory, research, and practical implications. Journal of Reading, 36, 84–95.
Carver, R. (1993). Merging the simple view of reading with rauding theory. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25, 439–55.
Chen, H. (1998). Yingyu shuiping dui Zhongguo Yingyu xuexizhe lijie Yingyu jufa qiyi de zhiyue zuoyong [Constraints of English proficiency on understanding English ambiguous sentences in Chinese EFL learners]. Modern Foreign Languages, 2, 1–16.
Chen, H-C., & Graves, M. F. (1995). Effects of previewing and providing background knowledge on Taiwanese college students’ comprehension of American short stories. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 663–686.
Cohen, A. (1998). Strategies in learning and using a second language. London: Longman.
Commander, N. E., & Stanwyck, D. J. (1997). Illusion of knowing in adult readers: Effects of reading skill and passage length. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 39–52.
Evans, E. E. (1988). “Advanced” ESL reading: Language competence revisited. System, 16, 337–346.
Flavell, J. H. (1978). Metacognitive development. In J. M. Scandura & C. J. Brainerd (Eds.), Structural/Process theories of complex human behavior (pp. 213–245). The Netherlands: Sijthoff and Noordhoff.
Fraser, C. A. (2004). Reading fluency in a second language. The Canadian Modern Language Journal, 61, 135–160.
Gibson,E,& Levin,E,(1975),The psychology of reading,Cambridge,MA:M.I.T.Press.
Goodman, K. S. (1967). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. Journal of the Reading Specialist, 6, 126–35.
Grabe, W. (1999). Developments in reading research and their implications for computer-adaptive reading assessment. In M. Chalhoub-Deville (Ed.), Issues in computer-adaptive testing of reading proficiency (pp. 11–48). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. (2002), op cit., p. 19; Verhoeven, L., & Snow, C. 2001,Literacy and Moti-vation: Reading Engagement in Individuals and Groups, (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers), p. 2
Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. L. (2002). Teaching and researching reading. London: Longman.
Gregory, S. (1994). The effect of metacognitive knowledge on local and global monitoring. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 143–154.
Haenggi, D., & Perfetti, C. A. (1992). Individual differences in reprocessing of text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 182–192.
Hammadou, J. (1991). Interrelationships among prior knowledge, inference, and language proficiency in foreign language reading. The Modern Language Journal, 75, 27–38.
Hazenburg, S., & Hulstijn, J. H. (1996). Defining a minimal receptive second language vocabulary for non-native university students: An empirical investigation. Applied Linguistics, 17, 145–163.
Hopkins, N. M., & Mackay, R. (1997). Good and bad readers: A look at the high and low achievers in an ESP Canadian studies reading and writing course. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 53, 473–490.
Hosenfeld, C. (1977). A preliminary investigation of the reading strategies of successful and non-successful second language learners. System, 5, 110–123.
Hosenfeld, C. (1984). Case studies of ninth grade readers. In J. C. Alderson & A. H. Urquhart (Eds.), Reading in a foreign language (pp. 231–240). London: Longman.
Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1987). The psychology of reading and language comprehension. Boston, Mass.: Allyn & Bacon.
Karen, Z., & Evans, C. N. (1993). Rereading to understand: The role of text coherence and reader proficiency. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 442–454.
Kern, R. G. (1994). The role of mental translation in second language reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 441–461.
Laufer, B. (1989). What percentage of text-lexis is essential for comprehension? In C. Lauren & M. Nordman (Eds.), Special language: From humans thinking to thinking machines, (pp. 316–323). Philadelphia, PA: Multilingual Matters.
Liu, Z., & Bever, T. G. (2002). Jufa fenxi zai waiyu yueduzhong de zuoyong [An experimental study of the function of syntactic analysis in reading comprehension]. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 34, 219–224.
Long, D. L., Seely, M. R., Oppy, B. J., & Golding, J. M. (1996). The role of inferential processing in reading ability. In B. K. Britton & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Models of understanding text (pp. 189–214). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Long, D. L., & Chong, J. L. (2001). Comprehension skill and global coherence: A paradoxical picture of poor comprehenders’ abilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 1424–1429.
Lu, S. (1999). An investigation into EFL reading processes: Reading effectiveness, inference construction, metacognitive strategy. Unpublished MA dissertation, Zhejiang University, China.
Meyer, B. J. F., & Rice, G. E. (1982). The interaction of reader strategies and the organization of text. Text, 2, 155–92.
Meyer, B. J. F., & Rice, G. E. (1984). The structure of text. In P. D. Pearson, R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, & P. Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 319–352). New York: Longman.
Ministry of Education. (2001). Yingyu kecheng biaozhun [National English curriculum standards for general education]. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press.
Nassaji, H. (2003). Higher-level and lower-level text processing skills in advanced ESL reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 87, 261–276.
Pang, J. 2008. Research on good and poor reader characteristics: Implications for L2 reading. Research in a Foreign Language, 20(1): 1-9
Pang, J., Zhou, X., & Fu, Z. (2002). English for international trade: China enters the WTO. World Englishes, 21, 201–216.
Paris, S. G., Wasik, B. A., & Turner, J. C. (1991). The development of strategic readers. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research, (Vol. 2, pp. 609–640). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Parry, K. (1991). Building a vocabulary through academic reading. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 629–653.
Perfetti, C. (1985). Reading ability. New York: Oxford University Press.
Pichette, F., Segalowitz, N., & Connors, K. (2004). Impact of maintaining L1 reading skills on L2 reading skill development in adults: Evidence from speakers of Serbo-Croatian learning French. The Modern Language Journal, 87, 391–403.
Pressley, M. (1998). Reading instruction that really works. New York: Guilford Press.
Rayner, K. (1997). Understanding eye movements in reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1, 317–339.
Reynolds, R. E., Shepard, C., Lapan, R., Cynthia K., & Goetz, E. T. (1990). Differences in the use of selective attention by more successful and less successful tenth-grade readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 749–759.
Schoonen, R., Hulstijn, J., & Bossers, B. (1998). Metacognitive and language-specific knowledge in native and foreign language reading comprehension: An empirical study among Dutch students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Language Learning, 48, 71–106.
Sheorey, R., & Mokhtari, K. (2001). Differences in the metacognitive awareness of reading strategies among native and non-native readers. System, 29, 431–449.
Smith, F. (1973). Psycholinguistics and reading. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Spires, H. A., & Donley, J. D. (1998). Prior knowledge activation: Inducing engagement with informational texts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 249–260.
Stanovich, K. E. (1980). Towards an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 32–71.
Stanovich, K. E. (2000). Progress in understanding reading: Scientific foundations and new frontiers. New York: Guilford Press.
Upton, T. A., & Lee-Thompson, L. (2001). The role of the first language in second language reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 469–495.
West, R. F., Stanovich, K., & Cunningham, A. (1995). Compensatory progresses in reading. In R. Dixon & L. Backman (Eds.), Compensating for psychological deficits and declines: Managing losses and promoting gain (pp. 275–296). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Yang, X., & Zhang, W. (2002). Yuanrenzhi yu Zhongguo daxuesheng Yingyu yuedu lijie xiangguan yanjiu [The correlation between metacognition and EFL reading comprehension of Chinese college students]. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 34, 213–218.
Zvetina, M. (1987). From research to pedagogy: What do L2 reading studies suggest? Foreign Language Annals, 20, 233–238.