A Corpus Analysis of ‘Death’ and ‘Life’ Metaphorical Expressions Based on Forough Farrokhzad’s Persian Poetry Book
International Journal of Language and Linguistics
Volume 7, Issue 4, July 2019, Pages: 186-189
Received: Jun. 11, 2019; Accepted: Jul. 10, 2019; Published: Jul. 23, 2019
Views 83      Downloads 120
Authors
Mohammad Aliakbari, English Department of Ilam University, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Ilam, Iran
Yousef Karami, English Department of Ilam University, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Ilam, Iran
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Many inquiries of cognitive linguistics represented that conceptual metaphors have played a substantial role in the conceptual system of human. Metaphors are frequently grounded in culture and can thus answer as a beneficent source for the consideration of cultural ideas alluded in language. The present study attended the distribution of death and life conceptual metaphors in Forough Farrokhzad’s Persian poetry book and their metaphoric frequency in the users’ ideas, opinions, and thoughts. By studying Forough Farrokhzad’s Persian poetry book as one of the well-known literary books, rich of, death and life metaphorical expressions, a corpus of 33 death and life conceptual metaphors has been selected and analyzed. Two rators who were Persian Literature teachers were interviewed to prepare us by investigating the accuracy of the conceptions of death and life metaphors within the poems and giving their comments. Furthermore, as a research method, a focus group was employed by Persian Literature teachers to present their opinions about the positive and negative connotations of the included death and life metaphors in the pertinent book. Findings proposed that death and life metaphors are not equally distributed in this book, are used with multiple conceptions and stood for either positive or negative connotations. Likewise, it was detected that death and life metaphoric expressions mostly show positive attitudes, but some of these metaphors break the available rule, connoting negative attitudes only.
Keywords
Conceptual Metaphor, Death and Life Metaphorical Expressions, Peoples’ Thoughts, Culture
To cite this article
Mohammad Aliakbari, Yousef Karami, A Corpus Analysis of ‘Death’ and ‘Life’ Metaphorical Expressions Based on Forough Farrokhzad’s Persian Poetry Book, International Journal of Language and Linguistics. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp. 186-189. doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20190704.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Conceptual metaphor in everyday language. The journal of Philosophy, 77 (8), 453-486.
[2]
Langacker, R. W. (1987). Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical prerequisites (Vol. 1). Stanford university press.
[3]
Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, fire, and dangerous things. University of Chicago press.
[4]
Kövecses, Z. (2015). Where metaphors come from: Reconsidering context in metaphor. Oxford University Press, USA.
[5]
Grady, E. J. (2007). Metaphor in Oxford handbook of cognitive linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[6]
Deignan, A. (2010). The Cognitive View of Metaphor: Conceptual Metaphor Theory. London: Equinox.
[7]
Lakoff, G. (1993). The contemporary theory of metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (2nd ed.) (pp. 202-251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[8]
Porat, R, & Shen, Y. (2017). Metaphor: The Journey from Bidirectionality to Unidirectionality. Poetics Today, 38 (1), 123-140.
[9]
Lönneker-Rodman, B. (2007). Multilinguality and FrameNet. International Computer Science Institute Technical Report.
[10]
Lakoff, G. (1992). Metaphor and semantics. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 2, 417-419.
[11]
Benczes, R., & Ságvári, B. (2018). Where metaphors really come from: Social factors as contextual influence in Hungarian teenagers’ metaphorical conceptualizations of life. Cognitive Linguistics, 29 (1), 121-154.
[12]
Feldman, J. A. (2006). From molecule to metaphor: A neural theory of language. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
[13]
Wang, C. & Dowker, A. (2007): Interpretation of animal metaphors: Evidence from Chinese and English children and adults. Paper presented at Child Language Seminar, University of Reading.
[14]
Rodriguez, I. L. (2009). of women, bitches, chickens and vixens: Animal metaphors for women in English and Spanish. Cultura, lenguaje y representación: revista de estudios culturales de la Universitat Jaume I, 7, 77-100.
[15]
Lixia, W., & Eng, W. B. (2012). A corpus-based study on snake metaphors in Mandarin Chinese and British English. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 12 (1), 311-324.
[16]
Rashid, S. M., Hajimaming, P., & Muhammad, N. N. (2012). ‘Farm’ Animal Metaphors in Malay and Arabic Figurative Expressions: Implications for Language Learning. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 1 (7), 33-39.
[17]
Aliakbari, M., & Faraji, E. (2014). Conceptualization of man's behavioral and physical characteristics as animal metaphors in the spoken discourse of Khezel people. Linguistik online, 59 (2), 57-59.
[18]
Farrokhzad, F. (2002). Forough Farrokhzad Poetry. Tehran: Morvarid Publication.
[19]
Richard, T. (2009). Qualitative versus quantitative methods: Understanding why qualitative methods are superior for criminology and criminal justice. Journal of Philosophical and Theoretical Criminology, 1, (1): 38-58.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186