Analysis of Climate Variability Effects on Wheat Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici) Epidemics in Bale and Arsi Zones of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics
Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages: 49-65
Received: Feb. 15, 2018; Accepted: Mar. 7, 2018; Published: Mar. 30, 2018
Views 862      Downloads 113
Tamene Mideksa, Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Bale-Robe, Ethiopia
Chemeda Fininsa, School of Plant Sciences, Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Bekele Hundie, Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute, Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center, Asella, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici, is the most destructive disease of wheat in the world. Bale and Arsi zones are conducive for stem rust epidemics. The study was conducted in 2013 to assess and model the effect of climate variability on wheat stem rust epidemics. The meteorological and disease data for the year 2004 to 2013 of Sinana and Kulumsa were obtained from the respective research centers and were analyzed. Four bread wheat cultivars, namely Kubsa, Madawalabu, Sofumer and Tusie were included in the study. The present study showed that stem rust epidemics was higher at kulumsa than at Sinana over the last 10 years. The increased stem rust severity at Sinana and Kulumsa were due to the total seasonal rainfall increase during wheat growing seasons. A reduction in stem rust severity was manifested at Sinana and kulumsa as seasonal mean minimum temperature increased, whereas a reduction in stem rust severity occurred at Kulumsa as the seasonal average relative humidity increased. The total seasonal rainfall had positive effect on the development of wheat stem rust, while the seasonal mean minimum temperature and seasonal average relative humidity significantly affected the development of wheat stem rust in the field.
Climate Variability, Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici, Stem Rust, Triticum aestivum, Wheat Cultivars
To cite this article
Tamene Mideksa, Chemeda Fininsa, Bekele Hundie, Analysis of Climate Variability Effects on Wheat Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici) Epidemics in Bale and Arsi Zones of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2018, pp. 49-65. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbes.20180402.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bekele Hundie, Verkuiji, H., Mawangi, W. and Tanner, D. G. 2000. Adaptation of improved wheat technologies in Adaba and Dodola Woredas of the Bale highlands of Ethiopia. CIMMYT/EARO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Bekele Hundie. 2003. Short report on yellow rust and stem rust. pp. 67-78. In: Bedada Girma (ed.). Proceedings of the Agronomy Workshop Organized by Bale Agricultural Development Enterprise. Nazereth, Ethiopia.
Bolton, M. D., Kolmer, J. A., and Garvin, D. F. 2008. Pathogen profile: Wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. Molecular Plant Pathology. 9 (5): 563–575.
Campbell, C. L., and Madden, L. V. 1990. Introduction to Plant Disease Epidemiology. New York, USA: John Wiley.
CIMMYT (International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement). 2005. Sounding the alarm on global stem rust: An assessment of race Ug99 in Kenya and Ethiopia and the potential for impact in neighboring regions and beyond. Expert Panel Report. International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT), Mexico. 26 p.
Couture, L. and Sutton, J. C. 1978. Relation of weather variables and host factors to incidence of airborne spores of Bipolaris Sorokiniana. Canadian Journal of Botany 56: 2162-2170.
CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2010/11. Large and Medium Scale Commercial Farms Sample Survey. Statistical Report on Area and Production of Crops, and Farm Management Practices. Statistical Bulletin 505. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2015. Agricultural sample survey, 2014/2015. Report on Area and Production of Major Crops. CSA May 2015. Available at:
Daamen, R. A., Stubbs, R. W. and Stol, W. 1992. Surveys of cereal diseases and pests in the Netherlands. Occurrence of powdery mildew and rusts in winter wheat. Netherland Journal of Plant Pathology. 98: 301-312.
Dagnachew Yirgu. 1967. Plant Diseases of Economic Importance in Ethiopia. Exp. Station Bull. No. 50. College of Agriculture, Debre-Ziet, Ethiopia.
Dreisigacker, S. 2004. Genetic diversity in elite lines and land races of CIMMYT spring bread wheat and hybrid performance of crosses among elite germplasm. Published doctoral dissertation. Faculty of Agricultural University of Hohenheim.
Eshetu Bekele. 1986. A Review of Research on Diseases of Barley, Tef and Wheat in Ethiopia pp 79-148. In: Tsedeke Abate (eds). A Review of Crop Protection Research in Ethiopia. Proceeding of the First Ethiopian Crop Protection Symposium. 4-7 February, 1985. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Eversmeyer, M. G, and Kramer, C. L. 1995. Survival of Puccinia recondita and P. graminis urediniospores exposed to temperatures from subfreezing to 35 °C. Phytopathology, 85: 161-164.
Fox, S. L. and D. E. Harder. 1995. Resistance to stem rust in selected barley lines and the inheritance of resistance to pathotype QCC. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 75: 781-788. 6.
Hailu, G. M. 1991. Wheat production and research in Ethiopia pp: 1-15. In: Hailu G, Tanner, DG. and Mengistu H (eds). Wheat research in Ethiopia: A historical perspective. Addis Ababa, IAR/CIMMYT.
Jin, Y., Steffenson, B. J. and Miller, J. D. 1994. Inheritance of Resistance to Pathotypes QCC and MCC of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici. In: barley lines Q21861 and Temperature Effect on the Expression of Resistance. Phytopathology 84: 452–455.
Khan, M. A., Yaqub, M. and Nasir, M. A. 1998. Slow rusting response of wheat genotypes against Puccinia recondite f.sp. tritici in relation to environmental conditions. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 10: 78-85.
Kurt, S. 2002. Screening of wheat cultivars for resistance to stripe rust and leaf blotch in Turkey Crop Protection 21:495-500.
Loegering, W. Q. 1959. Methods of recording cereal rust data U. S. D. A international spring wheat rust nursery.
Minitab for windows. 1998. Version 12.21, Minitab Inc.
Montgomery, D. C. and Peck, E. A. 1982. Introduction to linear regression analysis. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 504pp.
Myers, R. H. 1990. Classical and Modern Regression with Application. 2nd ed. PWS-KENT Puhl. Co., Boston, USA.
Peterson, D. P. 2001. Stem Rust of Wheat from Ancient Enemy to the Modern Foe. The American Phytopathological Society. APS Press. St. Paul, Minnesota.
Peterson, R. F., Campbell, A. B. and Hannah, A. E. 1948. A diagrammatic scale for estimating rust intensity of leaves and stem of cereals. Canadian Journal of Research Section C. 26: 496-500.
SARC (Sinana Agricultural Research Center). 2004. Sinana Agricultural Research Center Pathology Department Progress Reports for the Period 2002-2004. Sinana, Bale, Ethiopia.
Serbassa Negera. 2003. Wheat stem (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici) intensity and pathogenic variability in Arsi and Bale Zones of Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis. The School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University, Ethiopia.
Shank, R. 1994. Wheat stem rust and drought effect on Bale agricultural production and future prespects. Summerized report. 17-19 February. UNDP emergency Unit in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa. 5p.
Singh, R. P., Huerta-Espino, J. and Roelfs, A. P. 2002. The Wheat Rusts. pp. 554. In: B. C. Curtis, S. Rajaram, H. Gomez Macpherson (eds.). Bread Wheat Improvement and Production. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.
Singh, R. P., Hodson, D. P., Huerta-Espino, J., Jin, Y., Njau, P., Wanyera, R., Herrera Foessel, S. A. and Ward, R. W. 2008. Will stem rust destroy the world’s wheat crop? Advances in Agronomy. 98: 271-309.
Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H. 1986. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 2nd Ed. MacGraw Hill Book Inter. Co. New York.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-983-5186