Levels of Essential Elements and Anions in Vegetables from Organic Matter Impacted Farm in Uyo, Nigeria
American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics
Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2017, Pages: 20-25
Received: Jan. 8, 2017; Accepted: Jan. 24, 2017; Published: Oct. 31, 2017
Views 2255      Downloads 103
Godwin Asukwo Ebong, Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Helen Solomon Etuk, Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Fresh leaves of vegetables widely utilized for their nutritional and medicinal benefits in Nigeria namely: Telfairia occidentalis, Heinsia crinata, Vernonia amygdelina, Lasienthera africana, Talinum triangulare and Gnetum africana were obtained from an organic matter impacted farm in Uyo, Nigeria. These samples were treated following standard analytical procedures and analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods for the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, NO2-, NO3- and PO43-. Results obtained indicated the following ranges (µgg-1): 171.10 – 406.66; 5.16 – 6.81; 8.00 – 10.86; 88.40 – 243. 32; 110.40 - 343.25 and 163.60 – 422.00 for Fe, Cu, Zn, NO2-, NO3- and PO43- respectively. This study revealed that, Telfairia occidentalis has high potential of accumulating iron; Gnetum africana has the ability of absorbing more Cu and Zn; Talinum triangulare is capable of absorbing high NO2- and NO3- while Lasienthera africana has potential of absorbing more PO43- from the soil. However, the concentrations of all the parameters determined except nitrite in Talinum triangulare were within their safe limits recommended by WHO. This research work has also established that, the application of organic manure in agricultural soils is recommended provided the soil and sources of organic matter are not polluted.
Vegetables, Organic Matter, Nigeria, Essential Elements, Anions and Pollutants
To cite this article
Godwin Asukwo Ebong, Helen Solomon Etuk, Levels of Essential Elements and Anions in Vegetables from Organic Matter Impacted Farm in Uyo, Nigeria, American Journal of Biological and Environmental Statistics. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2017, pp. 20-25. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbes.20170302.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Al-Jassir, M. S. Shaker, A. and Khaliq, M. A. (2005). Deposition of heavy metals on green leafy vegetables sold on roadsides of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 75: 1020–1027.
Benson, N. U. and Ebong, G. A. (2005). Heavy metals in vegetables commonly grown in atropical garden ultisol. J. Sustain. Trop. Agric. Res., 16: 77-80.
Radwan, M. A. and Salama, A. K. (2006). Market basket survey for some heavy metals in Egyptian fruits and vegetables. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 44: 1273–1278.
D’Mello, J. P. F. (2003). Food Safety, ontamination and Toxins, CABI publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, Cambridge, M. A. p. 480.
Hamowa, A. (1994). Pharmacological studies on Vernonia amygdalina. Vet. Med. J., 42(1): 19-97.
Kalagbor, I. A., Barisere, V., Barivule, G., Barile, S. and Bassey, C. (2014). Investigation of the presence of some heavy metals in four edible vegetables, bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum), water leaf (Talinum triangulare) and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) from a cottage farm in Port Harcourt. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 6 (1): 18–24.
Gangolli, S. D., van den Brandt, P., Feron, V., Janzowsky, C., Koeman, J., Speijers, G., Speigelhalder, B., Walker, R. and Winshnok, J. (1994). Assessment of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds. Eur J. Pharmacol Environ Toxicol Pharmacol Sect., 292: 1-38.
Akan, J. C., Kolo, B. G., Yikala, B. S. and Ogugbuaja, V. O. (2013). Determination of some heavy metals in vegetable samples from Biu local government area, Bornu State, North Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 1 (2): 40–46.
Ihekeronye, A. I. and Ngoddy, P. O. (1985). “Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. Macmillan Education Ltd, Oxford and London”. p. 293.
McCall, D. and Willumsen, J. (1998). Effects of nitrate, ammonium and chloride application on the yield and nitrate content of soil-grown lettuce. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech., 73: 698–703.
Rapheal, O. and Adebayo, K. S. (2011). Assessment of trace heavy metal contaminations of some selected vegetables irrigated with water from River Benue within Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2 (5): 590–601.
Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M. and Marshall, F. M. (2008a). “Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) contamination of vegetables in urban India: A case study in Varanasi”. Environmental Pollution, 154: 254–263.
Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M. and Marshall, F. M. (2008b). “Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in varanasi City, India”. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 142: 269–278.
Xian, X. (1989). Effects of chemical forms of cadmium, zinc and lead in polluted soils on their uptake by cabbage plants. Plant and Soil, 113: 257–264.
Radojevic, M. and Bashkin, N. V. (1999). Practical Environmental Analysis. Royal Society of Chemistry and Thoma Graham House, Cambridge, pp. 180 -430.
Shuaibu, I. K., Yahaya, M. and Abdullahi, U. K. (2013). Heavy metal levels in selected green leafy vegetables obtained from Katsina Central Market, Katsina, North-Western Nigeria. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 7(5): 179–183.
FAO/WHO, Codex Alimentarius Commission (2001). Food Additives and Contaminants. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards programme, ALINORM 01/12A: 1-289.
Ali, M. H. H. and Al-Qahtani, K. M. (2012). Assessment of some heavy metals in vegetables, cereals and fruits in Saudi Arabian Markets. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 38: 31 -37.
Demirezen, D. and Ahmet, A. (2006). Heavy metal levels in vegetables in Turkey are within safe limits for Cu, Ni and exceeded for Cd and Pb. J. Food Qual., 29: 252 – 265.
Raven, J. A., Evans, M. C. W. and Korb, R. E. (1999). The role of trace metals in photosynthetic electron transport in O2-evolving organisms. Photosynth. Res. 60:111-149.
Hafeez, B., Khanif, Y. M. and Saleem, M. (2013). Role of zinc in plant nutrition- A Review. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 3(2): 374–391.
Uwah, E. I., Akan, J. C., Moses, E. A., Abah, J. and Ogugbuaja, V. O. (2007). Some anion levels in fresh vegetables in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Agricultural Journal, 2(3): 392–396.
Akan, J. C., Abdulrahman, F. I., Ogugbuaja, V. O. and Ayodele, J. T. (2009). Heavy metals and anion levels in some samples of vegetables grown within the vicinity of Challawa industrial area, Kano State, Nigeria. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 6 (3): 534–542.
Duncan, J.G. and John, H. (2006). Effect of nitrogen fertiliser on the nitrate contents of field vegetables grown in Britain. J. Sci. Food Agric., 37: 373-383.
Hardison, A., Gonzalez, P. A., Frias, I. and Raguera, J. (1996). The evaluation of the contents of nitrates and nitrites in food products for infants. J. Food. Comp. Anal., 9: 13–17.
Santamaria, P., Elia, A., Serio, F. and Todaro, E. (1999). A survey of nitrate and oxalate content in retail fresh vegetables. J. Sci. Food Agri., 79: 1882–1888.
WHO. (2009). Nitrates, nitrites and N-nitrosomas compounds. Geneva. Environmental Health Criteria 5.
Agency for toxic substances and disease Registry (ATSDR) (2015). Public Health Statement: Nitrate and Nitrite: Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences.
Ezeagu, I. E. (1996). Nitrate and nitrite contents in ogi and the changes occurring duringstorage. Food Chem., 56: 77-79.
Akan, J. C., Abdulrahman, F. I., Damari, G. A. and Ogunbuaja, V. O. (2008). Physicochemical determination of pollutants in wastewater and vegetable samples along the Jakara wastewater channel in Kano metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria. Eur. J. Sci. Res., 23 (1): 122-133.
Mor, F., Sahindokuyucu, F. and Erdogan, N. (2010). Nitrate and nitrite contents in some vegetables consumed in South Province of Turkey. Journal of Animal and veterinaryAdvances, 9 (15): 2013-2016.
Groffman P. M., Daniel J. B., Lawrence, E. B., Kenneth, T. B., Grace, S., Brush, J. Morgan, G., Richard, V. P., Ian, C. Y. and Wayne C. Z. (2003). Down by the Riverside: Urban Riparian Ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1(6): 315-321.
Wamalwa, K. W., Lusweti, J., Lutta, S., Anditi, B. C. and Martin, O. I. (2015). Variation of pollutant levels in vegetables: A case study of Kitale Municipality, Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 5 (13): 197–208.
Nelson, N. and Mikkelsen, R. (2008). Meeting the phosphorus requirement on organic farms. Better Crops, 92 (1): 12–14.
VanWijk, W.T.; Clemmensen, K. E.; Shaver, G. R.; Williams, M., Callaghan, T. V.; Chapin, F. S. Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Gough, L.; Hobbie, S. E.; Jonasson, S.; Lee, J. A.; Michelsen, A.; Press, M. C.; Richardson, S. J. and Rueth, H. (2004). Long-term ecosystem level experiments at Toolik Lake, Alaska and at Abisko, Northern Sweden: generalizations and differences in ecosysytem and plant type responses to global change. Global Biology, 10: 105-123.
Chinn, H. J. (1981). Effect of dietary factors on skeletal integrity in adults: Calcium, phosphorus, Vitamin D and protein. FASEB Life Science Technical Report, 223–79-2 275, pp. 1-75.
Draper, H. H. and Scythes, C. A. (1981). Calcium, phosphorus and osteoporosis. Fed. Pro., 40: 2434–2438.
Horsfall Jr M, Horsfall MN, Spiff AI. Speciation of heavy metals in inter-tidal sediments of the Okrika River system, Rivers State, Nigeria. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1998; 13(1): 1–9.
Romic M, Romic D. Heavy metal distribution in agricultural top soils in urban areas.Environmental Geology. 2002; 43:795-805.
Shayler, H., McBride, M. and Harrison, E. (2009). Sources and impacts of contaminants in soils. Cornell Waste Management Institute, Rice hall, Itheca, NY. pp. 1-6.
Masime, J. O., Wanjau, R., Murrungi, J. and Onindo, C. (2013). A Comparison of the levels of nitrate, nitrite and phosphate in homemade brews, spirits, in water and raw materials in Nairobi County using UV-visible spectroscopy. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 4(12): 329–344.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186